SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Wed, 24 Aug 2016 02:25:04 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: UDDT versus Pour Flush (with vermi-composting) versus ???: which are sustainable sanitation technologies and systems for peri-urban areas in Africa? - by: clint
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Wed, 24 Aug 2016 01:23:30 +0000
Re: SuSanA monthly webinar 4: Understanding the role of learning and donor-implementer relationships, August 25th, 12:00 BST (London time) - by: Improvedavis

I look forward to hearing the discussion and questions on these topics.]]>
Webinars and online meetings Tue, 23 Aug 2016 18:27:33 +0000
Re: Sustainability: Focusing on scale and behaviour change - by: andreshuesoWA
Thanks for this very interesting conversation.

I won’t repeat previous points, but just to quickly add:

- I agree with Madhavi on the need to strengthen human resource on the ground and take IEC seriously. As a supporting example, Indore became the first ODF district in Madhya Pradesh, partly because its expenditure of IEC budget was 6 times higher than any other district in the division.

- I also agree with Meena that better monitoring is crucial. I think that it is important to seize the opportunity provided by the World Bank 1.5 billion loan, which includes setting up a third party verification system. If it measures toilet use reliably, is truly independent and allows comparing performance across districts, I believe it can make a huge difference and strongly contribute to sustainability

Another thought I wanted to share is that sustainability requires changing social norms, and that needs in turn long term efforts to reach further milestones. If everything ends with ODF, sustainability will be at risk. I’d highlight 2:

- Once ODF is achieved, practical measures should be taken to avoid slippage, including regulation to ensure every new house built (households separating, newcomers, etc.) in the GP comes with a latrine. Campaigning and monitoring should continue for some time, and in the meantime investments should be made to progress on solid and liquid waste issues.

- Ensure schools, anganwdis and health centres have sustained sanitation services, along with handwashing facilities and water supply. This will not just demonstrate government leadership in practice but also educate future generations in healthy habits (and coherence will strengthen the mass media campaigns). This needs to be pushed at the state and national level, ensuring cross-ministerial collaboration to make sanitation a multi-sector effort, with health and education playing a key role.

Thanks and kind regards,

Andrés Hueso
Senior Policy Analyst - Sanitation
Theme 3: Sustainability Tue, 23 Aug 2016 16:39:38 +0000
Re: Sigmund Freud, the missing link in Water and Sanitation? - Seminar at Stockholm World Water Week Aug 28, 2016 - by: arno Conferences, seminars and workshops Tue, 23 Aug 2016 12:54:55 +0000 How about improving the Wikipedia page on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? - by: muench How about improving the Wikipedia page on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan together?

You can see what it currently looks like here:

The part on rural toilets is very brief.

If you have content to contribute but don't know how to edit in Wikipedia, I can help with this. The most important thing is to cite reputably sources for any content that you add.

So, can we take anything from this discussion and add it to the Wikipedia page about Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? I have already created some redirect pages in case people search for "Clean India" or "Clean India Mission". These search terms now redirect to the SBA page. Are there other terms that should also lead to there? SBM and SBA seem to be both in use as abbreviations for this.

On the way to a “clean India”: 2 years of Swacch Bharat Mission (Gramin) - Thematic discussion (SuSanA Indian Chapter) Tue, 23 Aug 2016 12:20:55 +0000
New WASH jobs and consultancies (15) from Josh's Water Jobs (week of 23 August 2016) - by: JoshuaNewton WASH Inclusion Technical Advisor – Handicap International (Beirut): 26 August

2. Jordan nationals: WASH Officer (Networks) – UNICEF (Jordan): 3 September

3. WASH Technical Advisor (Syria) – IOCC (Lebanon): 19 September

4. French speakers: Chef de project WASH – ACTED (Niger): Until filled

5. French speakers: Coordinateur WASH – ACTED (Niger): Until filled

6. French speakers: Co-facilitateur cluster WASH – ACTED (Niger): Until filled

7. WASH Project Manager – Joint Aid Management (Angola): 25 August

8. French speakers: Un Coordinateur Eau, Assainissement et Hygiène (H/F) – ACF (Chad): Until filled

9. Shelter and WASH Project Coordinator – NRC (Syria): 7 September

10. Urban WASH Advisor – GOAL (Sierra Leone): Until filled


11. Consultancy (WASH) – UNICEF (Angola): 31 August

12. WASH Coordinator for El Niño Emergency Drought Relief – UNICEF (Lesotho): 2 September

13. Ethiopia nationals: WASH Consultant – DAI (Ethiopia): Until filled

14. Senegal nationals: WASH Consultant – DAI (Senegal): Until filled

15. French or Arabic speakers: WASH Consultant (Country Team Leader) – DAI (Senegal): Until filled

For a complete list of jobs from the week of 23 August, please click here.]]>
Jobs, consultancies, internships Tue, 23 Aug 2016 11:53:31 +0000
Re: Sustainability: Focusing on scale and behaviour change - by: pkjha Double leach pit toilets should be discouraged for areas having high water table as there is chance of ground water pollution. Definition of Open Defecation by MoDWS should be followed. The definition includes criteria for a sanitary toilet. There are several technologies for on-site sanitation. A Handbook on Technological options for On-site sanitation, is in the process of release by the MoDWS very soon.
SBM Guidelines is silent on Septage Management. It is an important issue. The book on Technological options for solid and liquid waste management, released by the MDWS in 2015 mentions about Septage management also.

Theme 3: Sustainability Tue, 23 Aug 2016 11:41:40 +0000
2016 SEED Awards in India: Waste Management - Applications close 20 September - by: seed4change
I'm writing on behalf of SEED - promoting entrepreneurship for sustainable development - a global partnership founded by UNEP, UNDP and IUCN.

We are very excited to announce the opening of the 2016 SEED Awards in India, which invite applications from Indian eco-inclusive enterprises in the fields of Waste Management and Green ICT.

Have you started an enterprise that is innovative, sustainable and locally-driven? If yes, apply now for the 2016 #SEEDAwards in India! It’s your chance to receive a tailored support package consisting of capacity building, networking, and high-level profiling to help establish and grow your business. Submit your application by 20 September 2016!

We look forward to receiving your applications!

Kind regards,
Calls for proposals, tenders, applications, expressions of interest (projects and awards) Tue, 23 Aug 2016 08:46:45 +0000
Re: Masters in hydrology? Institutions and scholarships? - by: ddiba]]> Masters, diploma and PhD programmes (and scholarships) Tue, 23 Aug 2016 08:30:11 +0000 Re: Masters in hydrology? Institutions and scholarships? - by: ddiba I have just completed an MSc at KTH in Stockholm which covered a range of water and environment-related areas and also included some courses in hydrology, even if it wasn't entirely a hydrology programme. You can check it out here: and here:

There are other Swedish universities with MSc programmes which may have more hydrology content like: and and which has specialisation in hydrology. Applications usually open in mid-October till mid-January and you can find info about scholarship opportunities for studying in Sweden here:

Best wishes!]]>
Masters, diploma and PhD programmes (and scholarships) Tue, 23 Aug 2016 08:27:03 +0000
Re: SBM needs a bagful of ideas for success ! - by: nityajacob
One of the aims of the India Sanitation Coalition,, is to collect, organise or curate and disseminate these case studies. I hope we can contribute to this activity with quality material on good, bad and indifferent case studies since there are things to be learnt from all of them.]]>
Theme 4: Good Practices Tue, 23 Aug 2016 04:15:01 +0000
Re: UDDT versus Pour Flush (with vermi-composting) versus ???: which are sustainable sanitation technologies and systems for peri-urban areas in Africa? - by: hajo
I have downloaded and studied the research paper which you quoted in your posting, drawing our attention to ‘(a corbelled pit latrine targeted for rural areas and) an improved transitional pit latrine targeted for peri-urban areas’ and developed in Malawi.

The paper is mainly about the development of testing methods for materials (and workmanship) used in the construction of these two pit latrine types by local masons in Malawi and where conventional, internationally standardised tests are not possible due to lack of resources. The tests refer to testing of the soil, the mud mortar and the concrete (or better cement mortar as it lacks aggregates).

But I do not want to discuss the appropriateness of the tests for other countries or other types of toilet structures but rather question the fundamental need of having such tests for pit latrines in peri-urban areas which according to the paper are supposed to be emptied (while the corbelled pit latrine for rural areas is not to be emptied)!

My opinion is that we should not promote pit latrines in peri-/urban areas because they are not designed to be emptied. So, why develop solutions for problems of a sanitation technology which is the least developed and users rather would like to see them replaced with something more developed than being ‘improved’?

Therefore I am asking us:

Why designing substructures which do not collapse when the pit is emptied or exposed to heavy rains?

Why developing appropriate local testing methods for local materials and workmanship?

Why designing technologies for the emptying of latrine pits which are only accessible through the squat hole and contain sludge from fluid to muddy state and all sorts of solid waste from gum boots to bones which all cannot be handled by a single device?

Why developing regulations for the protection of the pit emptiers through protective clothing and safe procedures?

Why design and construct conveyance systems for FS which mostly has to be transported in drums?

Why have to develop alternative treatment works when the FS from latrine pits cannot be fed into standard waste water ponds?

We have plenty of threads on this forum where solutions for above problems are being developed, tested and discussed but I don’t see that we find lasting solutions.

I agree that we have thousands of pit latrines in African towns and it will take considerable time to replace them with something more appropriate and sustainable. But in the meantime no more toilets with such inappropriate properties should be promoted and constructed.

Only temporary measures should be taken to protect the population as good as possible from the health hazards of existing pit latrines while more sustainable solutions are developed and implemented.

Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Mon, 22 Aug 2016 17:55:32 +0000
India's Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) needs a bagful of ideas for success ! - by: siddharthadas
We are starting the final topic in the Swachh Bharat Mission discussion on good practices. I am Siddhartha Das, Policy Manager for Rural WASH with WaterAid. I am happy to start this discussion on the SuSanA India Forum, supported by the India Sanitation Coalition and Arghyam.

SBM has gained momentum since 2014 due to increased political willingness and sanitation being set as the national priority. Civil society has proactively worked with the system in identifying critical gaps along with suggesting ways to address those. Two of the most critical issues being recurrently identified are post construction behaviour and availability of resources.

The new commitments and drives under the SBM provide an opportunity to continuously learn from past and present governmental and non-governmental efforts to find out “what works and what does not”. Such learning could be possible only cross learning and sharing.

SBM since its launch has seen different people and institutions’ willingness to contribute and try out new and innovative methods. We have been seeing an array of new and interesting approaches by different government institutions, people’s institutions, committed individuals, NGOs and corporates. One of the most important initiatives advised in SBM is setting up of Rapid Action and Learning Units (RALU) at national. State and district levels. These units are supposed to act as catalysts for facilitating cross learning and sharing especially focussing on what works and what does not work. Operationalising RALUs has been one of the biggest challenges and various discussions on modalities of taking it forward has taken place.

WaterAid has set up a state RALU in Andhra Pradesh in collaboration with SSBM and PRIA. The unit established with the purpose of experimenting this new initiative has been running well and is acting as the required dissemination platform in AP. Initiatives are shared through regional and district consultation and upload of case studies in the government website. RALU in AP is now considering setting up of district RALUs to improve cross-learning.

One of the tendencies in the entire development sector as a whole is the inclination to bring out only good practices. It is equally critical for the sector to bring out bad practices as that may contribute to equal amount of learning as emanating out of good practices.

Growing suggestions of better programme design, better technology, strengthening institutions and stronger monitoring is always paramount and important. What is equally important is promoting both good and bad practices and ensuring that it is shared in appropriate platforms.

I invite your comments on the following questions:
1. What are good practice examples of how SBM has effectively contributed to significantly improve sanitation in communities?
2. How can this knowledge be institutionalised rather than remaining anecdotal?

Looking forward to a bagful of ideas

Warm Regards,

Siddhartha Das
Policy Manager: WaterAid]]>
Theme 4: Good Practices Mon, 22 Aug 2016 15:43:41 +0000
Sigmund Freud, the missing link in Water and Sanitation? - Seminar at Stockholm World Water Week Aug 28, 2016 - by: arno Seminar at Stockholm World Water Week
Aug 28, 2016 09.00-10.30 Lilla Teatern Folkets Hus

This event will explore the most often unconscious psychological barriers which hinder successful implementation of projects in the water and sanitation sector, failing to change deeply enrooted attitudes originating from early psychological development.
Freud, in his psychoanalytic theory, has described the importance of the oral and anal stages, which can be linked to water and sanitation respectively. These very early stages of development are later forgotten but remain crucial for the further development of one’s psycho-social personna and, if misunderstood or ignored, can affect the result of sanitation programs.
Compared to water supply, sanitation projects are confronted by a lot more taboos and unconscious reactions which often seriously hinder behavior change. There is also a deep contradiction in hygiene messages if one insists on the high risks related to fecal matter and simultaneously tries to convince people to use sludge or waste once it has been sanitized as a safe fertilizer.
The meeting will employ theoretical presentations and lively interaction with the audience to encourage participants to explore their conscious and unconscious beliefs related to wastewater and sanitation.]]>
Conferences, seminars and workshops Mon, 22 Aug 2016 15:24:14 +0000
Re: Sustainability: Focusing on scale and behaviour change - by: Madhavi
First and foremost is to recognize that there is a value chain and that the first step is not construction of toilets. Sanitation has to be looked at holistically and hence proactive efforts in behavior change, both before and after toilet construction are equally crucial. While the Swachh Bharat programme is designed to be a demand driven one, little attention is paid to the ‘softer’ aspects of the programme. IEC plans often remain as lists of various activities with very generic messages for all and there is reluctance to spend the IEC budgets. Half-way through the FY 2016-17, only 5.24% of the IEC funds have been booked. (; viewed on 18 August 2016 at 4:00 pm), and this is not a new trend. A variety of reasons for non-use of toilets need to be addressed through different target groups and using various positive emotional motivations and information. This means that investments need to be made in understanding of behaviours, developing strategies suited to various contexts and then operationalising the strategy, complete with human and financial resources allocations.

Presently the focus of the programme personnel is usually on construction, achieving targets and updating the online data management systems. Instead this needs to shift to behavior change by addressing concerns that cause reluctance in using a toilet such as managing anxiety around toilet usage, making toilets a priority for all – men, women and children etc. Behaviour change activities when undertaken are usually found to be person driven rather than process/system driven. While it is good to have passionate leadership at the helm of the programme, the personnel responsible for the SBM programme at various levels often lack clarity about their roles and responsibilities and they are rarely equipped with strategic communication tools to promote toilet construction, usage and maintenance.

Behaviour change communication (BCC) is an intense exercise requiring dedicated time, people and financial resources. In a pilot that Arghyam did in 25 GPs in Davangere Karnataka, it took a professional communication agency about 8 months to carry out their research, develop a strategy and produce campaign collateral to create demand for household toilets. The pilot was rolled out by the district level Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan unit. The team structure comprised of - 4 people at the district level, 9 people at the block level and one dedicated Panchayat Development Officer and Swachhata Doot at every GP. At the GP line workers like ASHA, anganwadi workers and school teachers were also roped in. In addition, there were nine campaign teams of 4 people each, travelling from village to village and carrying out critical campaign events. With this team 119 villages of 25 GPS across 6 blocks of the district could be reached out to twice in a span of one month, with specific messages on building and using toilets. The campaign reached out to 93% targeted households. Arghyam supported the campaign design while the campaign was rolled out leveraging IEC fund under NBA.

While this was a pilot, the resources can all be optimized for a programme at scale. The SBM guidelines outline the human resource requirements for the implementation of the programme, but the States may or may not have this HR in place. This needs to be addressed. Once the HR is in place, capacity building will have to be done for the programme personnel at all levels - district, block or GP as well as any additional HR. A comprehensive training programme on various approaches to triggering, implementation of specific contextualized behavior change campaigns, the SBM scheme processes etc. will be needed to build capacities of various stakeholders. Investments will also be required to engage creative agencies to develop behavior change communication campaigns.

The point is that behavior change is not a one-time or one-dimensional activity and hence it will require intense investments in terms of time, money and human resources.
Even if the focus shifts to behavior change and a large mass of people are influenced to change their behaviours, there will remain a group of people for whom it may not be a matter of behaviour, but who may have different reasons/barriers to building and using a toilet. The reasons could range from lack of funds or lack of space, to rocky terrain, high water table, living in a rented space etc. These groups will require case by case stock taking and problem resolving in order to attain 100% toilet access and the subsequent ODF goal.

The safe disposal of feces is the second generation problem that will need to be addressed. The SBM guideline addresses this by recommending a twin pit design, but the fact is that in many places single pit toilets are being built and can sooner or later lead to overflowing pits, defunct toilets and even contamination of water sources. Improved training on appropriate technology/design for masons, education of users on this and better monitoring to prevent single pit toilets is the need of the hour. Fecal Sludge Management continues to be a missing link in the sanitation value chain and creative solutions need to be developed for this.

Sr. Manager, Programmes
Theme 3: Sustainability Mon, 22 Aug 2016 11:00:42 +0000