SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 27 Nov 2015 10:00:13 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Urban planning in megacities and/or sanitation infrastructure and/or the public health aspect of sanitation - by: muench
Welcome to this place! We're always happy to help new people, however in your case I wasn't really sure what the question was? You wrote:
"I would greatly appreciate it if anyone would be willing to speak with me on the subject of urban planning in megacities and/or sanitation infrastructure and/or the public health aspect of sanitation."

Could you narrow down what your question is exactly? What's your research hypothesis or is your study more of a general literature review?

Health issues and connections with sanitation Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:50:27 +0000
Inauguration of FSTP in Devanahalli, Bangalore - by: cddsociety

On occassion of World Toilet Day a first of its kind plant in India for safe treatment and disposal of sludge collected in septic tanks and pit latrines was launched in Devanahalli, Karnataka.

Devanahalli, like many other densely populated towns and cities in India, does not have an underground drainage (UGD) system. Most of the town’s households depend on on-site sanitation infrastructure such as septic tanks and pit latrines for sewage disposal which require periodic emptying. However, lack of designated places for disposing the faecal sludge leads to unsafe dumping on land and in water bodies. Therefore, the FSTP at Devanahalli provides a safe delivery point for the waste

It should be noted however, that an FSTP is only a first step in proper management of Faecal Sludge. Emptying of on-site systems and their maintenance is today largely unregulated. Vacuum suction vehicles – the so called “honey suckers” - operate in an unsafe and informal environment. A well designed ‘Faecal Sludge Management” system will address policy/regulatory issues and develop business models to sustain the entire system.]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:47:47 +0000
Re: Nutrient recovery and reuse of human excreta - by: muench
Very pertinent topic. Impossible to summarise it in a few sentences.

If you browse through the previous discussion on this topic in this sub-category, you will get a pretty good idea:

Also check out the key documents post of this topic here:

So what conclusions did you draw regarding this topic after taking this online course and doing some reading on it? How is the situation looking for your own country (Kenya?) according to your perception so far?

Perceptions differ a lot even within one country (urban versus rural folks for example) and do also change over time. Those changes over time also for European countries were discussed here on the forum:

Hope this helps a bit to get you started?

Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:45:02 +0000
Re: Submit your favorite reading about capacity development (WG1 topic) and win one of many prizes! - by: muench
Your four practical suggestions for the library I fully support. This is what you had suggested:

  1. Broaden the scope of the library in order to include readings and resources in general (documents, webpages, training materials, video, etc.) - we did that in the SSWM Toolbox and made good experiences
  2. Add an additional filter for training material where relevant to the content of the existing library
  3. Review the WG1 tags (filters) in the Library
  4. Invite WG1 members to share recent documents, resources etc with the secretariat to update the WG1 selection

As a straight forward first step I would suggest that the filter attributes for the working group 1 documents are changed so that if someone searches for documents with the theme of capacity development, they only get the ones that you have now identified above rather than all these 93, see here.

This is actually relatively fast and easy to do.
Once again, working group 1 is leading the pack - I think the other working groups will follow suit over time.

For people who are a bit confused what this is all about: In the SuSanA library ( at the top right there is a filter button. If you click on that, you can filter the library content by a number of parameters. One of them is to filter by working group topic. So far, when you filter for the WG 1 topic (capacity development) too many come up which are not specific to capacity development, really.

I also support your other suggestions about a better integration of the training materials section ( into the SuSanA library, and the addition of more training materials.

Also videos are good to add to the SuSanA library. Come to think of it, we had a kind of video library in the old SuSanA website and I think Enno was working on re-integrating that into the new website but I am not so sure now?
The old video page looked like this:

But website links I wouldn't add to the library; I think that would take it a bit far? Or could you give an example how that looks in the SSWM library?

WG 1 (Capacity development) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:32:13 +0000
Re: Fit For School Approach (F4S) - 10 primary schools in Moshi, Tanzania - by: muench
Thanks a lot for keeping us updated about this very interesting project! I really appreciate that you're posting these regular updates - your posts are very interesting! Thanks for also including the nice photos in your last post. Please do keep us posted how things evolve over the coming months.

I noticed in one post you said:
Unfortunately a number of fittings got stolen already at one school before installation

Was that an isolated incidence or is theft (and possibly vandalism and neglect) an issue that you're continually grappling with?

What state are the school toilets in, by the way, in those schools where you're installing the group handwashing facilities?

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 08:55:10 +0000
SSP Journal: October 2015 - topic: Financing Sanitation - by: Langergraber
I am happy to announce that Issue 24 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (ISSN 2308-5797) on "Financing Sanitation" is available (see pdf-file).

The papers presented in this issue are:
  • David Auerbach describes the Sanergy Way for sanitation provision in urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya,
  • Rochelle Holm et al. present a study on funding mechanisms for private sector participation and provision of rural household sanitation facilities in Malawi, and
  • Charles Omona presents sanitation system financing models and examples of successful financing models for households and institutions in Uganda

Issue 24 will be available also from the journal website ( soon as well.

With best regards,
Guenter Langergraber
Editor SSP journal]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 08:54:46 +0000
Re: Interesting discussion on scheduled desludging vs on-demand desludging on Urban Sanitation and Hygiene dgroup (SNV) - by: muench
Thanks for mentioning this discussion on Dgroups on scheduled desludging versus on-demand desludging of septic tanks.
We've also had quite a lively discussion about this topic here on the forum in the past:

So I think quite a few people in the SuSanA community are interested in it.

I will ask the organiser of that Dgroup discussion (Antoinette) if she can copy the posts across to here or post a summary of the discussion here. Copying posts 1:1 would be good but may not be feasible without asking each contributor for permission as the Dgroup is a closed group whereas the SuSanA discussion forum is an open group (some people may not like to have their contributions in the open arena which we need to respect).

Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 08:47:20 +0000
Re: Girls and Schools WASH in the Pacific Free Webinar - Thursday 29 October, 2015; 12:00pm AEST/Brisbane time - by: muench I am just wondering if there is a recording available from this webinar or if the presentations are available? And what are the main countries that were represented in the webinar in the "Pacific region"? Just wondering where UNICEF, WaterAid and others are laying their focus in that region. You mentioned Fiji and Timor Leste in your post.

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 08:35:48 +0000
Re: Draft Operative Guidelines - Septage/Facel Sludge Management - by: cddsociety
sorry for the delay in response, but better late than never.

The aim of developing the guidelines and the planned process was that the government owns it rather than it becoming just a set of recommendations from the project. Therefore the guidelines were developed in consultation with few actors (from the sector) working in the government or working to advise the government, lawyers, stakeholders from civil societies and organizations working in the sector. Once the draft was ready, it was reviewed intensely by few sector specialists. Following this, some of the actions that were carried out to ensure that the actors in State are aware of the importance of policy for faecal sludge management are listed below
1. A consultation meeting was conducted to take views, suggestions of all the stakeholders who are involved/responsible for providing sanitation facilities in the State. Mainly Water and Sewerage Board, Directorate of Municipal Administration-DMA(Head of all urban local bodies), institutes, NGOs and Law schools
2. Comments provided were validated and incorporated in the guidelines and submitted to Government (DMA) for approval
3. DMA suggested to implement the process recommended in the guidelines in one of the towns of Karnataka
4. Devanahali Town managed by a Town Municipal Council (TMC) is selected for pilot implementation of operational guidelines, as town is interested in sanitation and has been proactive in taking initiatives on earlier occasions
5. Efforts are on to share the learnings from the implementation process with other towns through field visits and workshops
6. The lessons learnt in the implementation process will be incorporated in the final version of the guidelines and then the Government will initiate the process of rolling it out for all towns
Some initial lessons learnt are that ‘champions’ in the government/town help significantly for FSM to be made effective, capacity building of ULBs as a parallel activity is helpful, survey (even if town is small) can be challenging, ‘informed’ assumptions will have to be made in the survey data analysis as it is almost impossible to get 100% actual data from field and an incremental approach to guideline implementation might be more realistic than an absolute implementation

Faecal sludge management Fri, 27 Nov 2015 03:07:12 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Behaviour change and user psychology issues".

The selection of documents is so far based mainly on advice by Tracey Keatman who moderated the Thematic Discussion 4 on "Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability", see: . Note the documents selected are mainly focused on maintaining ODF (open defecation free) behaviours - except the publication by Mosler - see also the comment at the end of this post.

We are open to feedback if others think that other documents or links should be selected here.

Recommended top 5 documents in the thematic area of "Behaviour change and user psychology issues", in reverse chronological order:

Cavill, S., Chambers, R., Vernon, N. (2015). Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights. Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock (Issue 4). CLTS Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, United Kingdom

Sustainability is one of the most burning subject matters that subsumes many of the issues in CLTS. In the issue, some priority areas for learning are identified: How to phase in sanitation marketing; Post-ODF engagement of government, NGOs, donors and others; How to ensure equity and inclusion; How to transform social norms; Monitoring, learning, changing.

O’Connell, K. (2014). What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review. World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Working Paper, Washington DC, United States

The programmatic approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and build up the supply of sanitation products and services at scale. This Working Paper is one in a series of knowledge products designed to showcase project findings, assessments, and lessons learned through WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation initiative.

Mosler, H-J., Huber, A., Inauen, J., Tobias, R. (2012). How to achieve evidence-based behavioural change. Sandec News Issue 13, Eawag / Sandec, Duebendorf, Switzerland

Providing target populations in developing countries with hygiene, sanitation and water “hardware” must be accompanied by so-called “software” programmes to achieve behavioural change. A general protocol for behavioural change is outlined containing the following steps: Defining the behaviour to be changed of the target population, determining the factors steering the target behaviour, selecting and designing behavioural change techniques (BCTs) to alter crucial behavioural factors, evaluating short-term and long-term effects and the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques.

Hanchett, S., Krieger, L., Kahn, M.H., Kullmann, C., Ahmed, R. (2011). Long-Term Sustainability of Improved Sanitation in Rural Bangladesh, World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), Washington DC, United States

Bangladesh is not only the birthplace of the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach. There is more to the sanitation story from this country that needs to be shared. Lessons extracted from the Bangladesh experience could richly inform sanitation strategies in other countries, particularly those struggling to increase access to basic sanitation in rural areas.

Mukherjee, N. (2011). Factors Associated with Achieving and Sustaining Open Defecation Free Communities: Learning from East Java. World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), Washington DC, United States

The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is working with governments and local private sectors to build capacity and strengthen performance monitoring, policy, financing, and other components needed to develop and institutionalize large scale, sustainable rural sanitation programs. With a focus on building a rigorous evidence base to support replication, WSP combines Community-Led Total Sanitation, behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and strengthen the supply of sanitation products and services, leading to improved health for people in rural areas.

You can find further important documents dealing with this topic here:

Behavior change is a huge topic in public health. The selection here is focussing on two behaviors that are regarded as critical in the WASH sector: changing from open defecation to toilet use; and handwashing (is this too limiting? Are there others?).

We had in the past identified key documents in those two particular areas of behaviour change already (but not with a focus on psychology issues), namely:

Behaviour change and user psychology issues Fri, 27 Nov 2015 02:54:12 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Cities (planning, implementation, and management processes) - by: muench
It’s not easy to limit it to 5 key documents but I think any more than 5 would defeat the purpose of telling a new person which document(s) they should read.

Those documents and links that are also important appear below the 5 key documents in the links list.

We can update this sticky post from time to time if/when a new key document about urban sanitation appears on the scene.]]>
Cities (planning, implementation, and management processes) Fri, 27 Nov 2015 02:37:10 +0000
Re: Argument on Wikipedia: honey bucket or bucket toilet? And the winner is: bucket toilet - by: SeBer
a widely used reference on bucket toilets in SA is "Mjoli, NP (2012). Evaluation of Sanitation Upgrading Programmes – The Case of the Bucket Eradication Programme. WRC Report No. 2016/1/12. ISBN 978-1-4312-0326-0"

It gives an overview over what has happened across the country in order to substitute the bucket toilets which were installed during Apartheid with adequate sanitation. Here in South Africa the term bucket toilet or bucket system is directly linked to the Apartheid regime, so the term is very much stigmatized. As you can imagine, this makes it also very hard to introduce cartridge based toilet systems. The moment people perceive it as a bucket the issue becomes super political.]]>
Definitions, glossaries, dictionaries, mapping tools Thu, 26 Nov 2015 23:21:14 +0000
Re: Influence of bad institutional sanitation on wider community - by: joeturner
Or could it just be that there is someone in some of the facilities who makes a point to make a noise about (takes responsibility for?) the sanitation situation in the clinics - and such a person does not exist in the other clinic for whatever reason..?]]>
Other non-household settings (e.g. hospitals, health centres, prisons, train stations, offices, work places) Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:58:28 +0000
Re: Presentations from Dry Toilet Conference in Finland in August 2015 - by: muench
That's great, thanks a lot for uploading all these conference papers to the SuSanA library!

I am wondering if it would be useful to also place a link here on the conference page for 2015 in case someone is looking for the papers there?:

What do you think?

Conferences, seminars and workshops Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:26:50 +0000
Thanks for highlighting this report about European Union Development Assistance in Africa. I have moved your post to the end of this existing thread, and have also moved the thread to this sub-category on monitoring and evaluation where it fits slightly better than in the sub-category on financing (although it would have fitted there as well).

It's been a while since I read the report, but now that you have read it recently, could you perhaps address some of the questions I posed in 2012 about this report? Please scroll up and you'll see my post. Thanks a lot.

(this is one reason why I like this forum so much compared to other online discussion places; it is so easy to find again older discussions on the same topic even if they are three years apart! )

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:32 +0000