SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://www.forum.susana.org/ Mon, 08 Feb 2016 16:32:40 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://www.forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://www.forum.susana.org/ en-gb Public and private funding - by: Verele http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/189-thematic-discussion-2-urban-sanitation-finance-from-macro-to-micro-level-irc-wsup-snv-in-junejuly-2015/16904-public-and-private-funding#16904 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/189-thematic-discussion-2-urban-sanitation-finance-from-macro-to-micro-level-irc-wsup-snv-in-junejuly-2015/16904-public-and-private-funding#16904
In the paper we argue that sanitation awareness creation, capacity building and sanitation demand generation is treated AND financed as a public good. The actual construction of sanitation systems can be financed differently taking into account the capacity to pay of the different segments of the population.

Based on more than only the experience in FINISH, Valentin Post and Vijay Athreye, write about themes that are new in the context of sanitation financing. We focus on the first part of the entire sanitation chain, i.e. awareness creation of the need for a toilet, demand generation, capacity building of stakeholders and (leading to the) construction of safe toilets. In the sanitation chain these are followed by collection and transport of faecal matter, safe disposal and or treatment for reuse of excreta.]]>
Thematic discussion 2: Urban Sanitation Finance - From Macro to Micro Level (IRC, WSUP, SNV in June/July 2015) Mon, 08 Feb 2016 16:23:34 +0000
financial instruments for sanitation - by: Verele http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/189-thematic-discussion-2-urban-sanitation-finance-from-macro-to-micro-level-irc-wsup-snv-in-junejuly-2015/16903-financial-instruments-for-sanitation#16903 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/189-thematic-discussion-2-urban-sanitation-finance-from-macro-to-micro-level-irc-wsup-snv-in-junejuly-2015/16903-financial-instruments-for-sanitation#16903
In our series on 6 papers on Financing Sanitation the first paper Valentin Post and Vijay Athreye offer an overview of the financial instruments for sanitation used in the FINISH Programme in India and Kenya.]]>
Thematic discussion 2: Urban Sanitation Finance - From Macro to Micro Level (IRC, WSUP, SNV in June/July 2015) Mon, 08 Feb 2016 16:17:49 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: Katie http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation/14303-different-urban-scenarios-for-wastewater-treatment-and-recycling-nawatech-project-in-pune-and-nagpur-india?limit=12&start=12#16902 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation/14303-different-urban-scenarios-for-wastewater-treatment-and-recycling-nawatech-project-in-pune-and-nagpur-india?limit=12&start=12#16902
The NaWaTech consortium is pleased to inform you a new date and location for the International Conference on Innovations in Sustainable Water and wastewater Treatment Systems (ISWATS) has been fixed. The conference will take place on April 21st – 23rd, 2016 in Pune (at the Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration YASHADA).

The conference will include presentations of findings from all four projects supported under the framework of the India – European Union Science & Technology Cooperation in water technology and management by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and the European Commission (i.e. NaWaTech, SARASWATI, SWINGS, and Eco India).

The strategic objectives of the conference are to exchange knowledge, technologies, guidelines and tools for implementation and operation among academia and public authorities, skilled service providers and SMEs, enabling research partnerships and creating favourable environments for the application of treatment systems and technologies for sustainable water / wastewater treatment, reuse and recycle.

Please find more information in attached brochure and at www.iswats.com. Interested participants may submit their abstracts for oral and/or poster presentation on any of the conference themes (abstract submission deadline: February 29th, 2016).

Kind regards,
Katie]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:53:16 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: joeturner http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16901 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16901
from this book: books.google.co.uk/books?id=ONYZm_J0gr8C...ge&q&f=false

" The water and nutrient holding capacity of clay soils is higher than that of sandy and silty soils, therefore leaching of NO3, P, other nutrients and organo-chlorines is dependent on soil texture. Conversely the risk of accumulation of harmful components in the root zone following repeated application of large doses of manure is higher in heavier textured soils than in light soils. Clay soils become more easily waterlogged after heavy rainfall because of a lower hydraulic conductivity, i.e. the possible rate of water transport through the soil. Under waterlogged conditions, denitrification can occur and harmful N2O may be formed. Under extreme acid or alkaline conditions (pH<4 or>9), soils tend to deflocculate, the structure is destroyed and leaching of many organic and inorganic components becomes inevitable. Volatilization of NH3 from soils with higher pH values is greater than from those with lower pH values."

From this FAO document: www.fao.org/wairdocs/lead/x6113e/x6113e05.htm

"Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine + 25% TC, (T5) 50% urine + 50% TC and (T6) 25% urine + 75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine + 25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production."

from this research paper www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09593330.2014.984774

Urine application has a different effect on different soils in different places. This is just a fact, not "over thinking".]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:21:59 +0000
Re: Sludge Treatment Wetland (STW) for anaerobic digested slurry. A study case in Gujarat, India - by: secretariat http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/36-constructed-wetlands-soil-filters-and-infiltration-beds/6592-sludge-treatment-wetland-stw-for-anaerobic-digested-slurry-a-study-case-in-gujarat-india#16900 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/36-constructed-wetlands-soil-filters-and-infiltration-beds/6592-sludge-treatment-wetland-stw-for-anaerobic-digested-slurry-a-study-case-in-gujarat-india#16900

Thanks for providing the latest results.

You can find the case study (MSc thesis) in the SuSanA Library now:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2435


Kind Regards
Jasmin (on behalf of the SuSanA Secretariat)]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 08 Feb 2016 13:45:40 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: Marijn Zandee http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16898 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16898
In response to this comment:


Yes, I know that some here have had good results with their urine irrigation schemes, but these must be unusual situations and should not be seen to apply to everyone else in all situations. That's clearly not the case, otherwise there would be no need to have agronomists and soil scientists advising farmers on the correct amounts of fertilizer to use on their crops.


Urine fertilization has to a large extend happened in a developing world setting. The problem you describe of soils with N (or P) levels that are already so high that additional nutrients do not help plant growth does -in my experience- not apply in those cases. The nutrient saturated soil problem is one associated with intensive livestock keeping. Where so much dung is spread on the land that it is over fertilized. This is probably why most trials with urine fertilization have worked well.

In general I think your comments on urine fertilization in this thread are valid. However, I think, you are "over thinking" things for practical purposes in the developing world.

Best

Marijn]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:44:14 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: Marijn Zandee http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16897 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16897
Regarding biochar from sanitation, this does happen (at close to full scale pilots), see for example:

forum.susana.org/forum/categories/224-th...nitation-and-hygiene

As I understand bsoutherland's post, he is not pyrolyzing the fecal sludge from the toilet, but crop residues. The biochar from this is then used as a sort of "nutrient sponge" for the urine collected in a diversion toilet.

Regards

Marijn]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:20:33 +0000
Re: Innovations and Private Sector: Can They Solve the Sanitation Problem? - by: Marijn Zandee http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16896 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16896
I would like to re-plug the synthesis that Ken Caplan made of last year's discussion on local private sector roles. As it seems to me that it at least contains some half answers to Diane's questions.

forum.susana.org/forum/categories/224-th...nitation-and-hygiene

In addition to Giacomo, I would like to repeat one of my statements from the Thematic Discussion namely that the private sector cannot by itself create a nation wide market for sanitation products and services. They can supply toilets, conveyance and treatment systems, and services. But, I am convinced that they are too small, and to fragmented -in most developing countries- to create a mindset among the general population that their life is not complete without a proper toilet.

Regards

Marijn]]>
User interface technology innovations Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:01:59 +0000
Re: Wikipedia Wikiproject Sanitation and Akvopedia - Why are there two resources and what is the difference between them? - by: annetempel http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/198-wikipedia-and-other-wikis/16482-wikipedia-wikiproject-sanitation-and-akvopedia-why-are-there-two-resources-and-what-is-the-difference-between-them#16895 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/198-wikipedia-and-other-wikis/16482-wikipedia-wikiproject-sanitation-and-akvopedia-why-are-there-two-resources-and-what-is-the-difference-between-them#16895 thanks for your honest and critical feedback. We have just recently launched the SuSanA Working Group Wiki and are happy to hear about user experiences and suggestions for improvement.

As you point out, different implementations/versions of the Wiki exist: The Sanitation Portal on the SuSanA website (www.susana.org/en/resources/akvo-sanitat...:Sanitation%20Portal), the SuSanA Working Group Wiki (or SuSanA Partner Portal), which is a sandbox (akvopedia.org/SuSanA/Main_Page), and Akvopedia, Akvo’s wiki resource which is the original source of the Sanitation portal wiki pages that are published on the SuSanA website (akvopedia.org/wiki/Sanitation_Portal).

Page editing of the Sanitation Portal must be done in Akvopedia or in the SuSanA Working Group Wiki (but not from the SuSanA website). In the SuSanA Working Wiki, new pages and content can be created. It offers a space for working groups to collaboratively create new pages and further developing the Working Group Factsheets, which will eventually be published on Akvopedia.org.

Let me explain, why this set-up was chosen. The Sanitation Portal is not directly editable via the SuSanA website, to better handle the potential influx of many pages with the more than 6,000 SuSanA members. New pages or content created are allowed a space of their own - the SuSanA Working Group Wiki - , so members can edit and create pages at a comfortable pace, then when the page is finished, the Working Group leaders will let Akvo know so we they check the material over and publish it in the right place in Akvopedia.

Winona from Akvo explains the procedure as follows:
Since Akvopedia has six portals, we want to make sure the SuSanA material ends up in the correct place. Sometimes the Sanitation Portal is not the best place, or sometimes material is already on Akvopedia, so we want to insure duplicates are not made before we publish the material. Once the SuSanA material is published in the right place, members can always re-edit the content directly into Akvopedia, so members never have to worry about making things perfect or including everything the first time. The SuSanA Working Group Wiki also allows users to take the time they need to edit and create new content. This prevents impartial pages (which could confuse users) published prematurely in Akvopedia, keeping the new content separate until its finished.
Since Akvopedia staff and Working Group leaders will handle the organization and placement into Akvopedia, this frees the members up to focus on creating great content that shares their important contributions with Akvopedia and the world.


We are currently working on a new welcome page for the SuSanA Working Group Wiki to improve its user-friendliness which also includes a better explanation of the current workflow and how SuSanA members can contribute to Akvopedia.

You have said: “There is no link to Akvopedia (the WASH wiki) from the Sanitation portal (I've asked that this be put there). There is no link to the working group wiki under Resources >> Wiki.

I agree and we will work on providing better interlinkages and better explanations on how to contribute to them.

A full integration of the Wiki would require additional resources, so I am happy to keep this suggestion in mind as a potential long-term improvement, and invite everybody in the meantime to test and make use of the current version of the SuSanA Working Group Wiki.
We are open for any other feedback, suggestions and ideas for improvement.

Kind regards,
Annkathrin (on behalf of the SuSanA Secretariat)

+++Please find below some more background information about Akvopedia (which Winona from Akvo has sent)+++

Akvopedia is a wiki, which means anyone can contribute and edit its content. However, there are many different kinds of wikis on the web. Ours is more managed than some in order to keep the quality and design consistent. So when others contribute, usually our staff checks and edits the material before publishing it for grammatical errors, spelling, and clearly communicated content. Many of our users speak English as a 2nd language, so we like to insure the material on Akvopedia does not use language that is too academic, so as not to exclude many of our users who are researching information for their own communities in-need.

Most people think of Wikipedia when they think of a wiki, and we use the same software as they do, but our organization of material is very different. We don’t have lots of moderators to constantly check new edits or additions, so we go a different route, which is to preapprove most pages. Although Akvopedia is a nonprofit foundation, we do try to follow a consistent design to properly brand our website, to make it memorable for users. Wikipedia does not have much of a design, there are many colors, sizes of photos, and heading fonts that have no size restrictions. This formatting difference is also why we like to check over pages before they are published to Akvopedia. (Our formatting is explained in the Quick Start Guide www.susana.org/images/newPage/working-gr...uick-Start-guide.pdf ).
]]>
Wikipedia and other wikis Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:50:53 +0000
Re: Field testing of off-grid, self-sustained, modular, electronic toilet for slums, with water, energy/ fertilizer recovery (Eram Scientific, India) - by: arno http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/14098-field-testing-of-off-grid-self-sustained-modular-electronic-toilet-for-slums-with-water-energy-fertilizer-recovery-eram-scientific-india#16894 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/14098-field-testing-of-off-grid-self-sustained-modular-electronic-toilet-for-slums-with-water-energy-fertilizer-recovery-eram-scientific-india#16894
1. Removes germs from human waste and recovers valuable resources such as energy, clean water, and nutrients.

2. Operates “off the grid” without connections to water, sewer, or electrical lines.

3. Costs less than US$.05 cents per user per day.

4. Promotes sustainable and financially profitable sanitation services and businesses that operate in poor, urban settings.

5. Is a truly aspirational next-generation product that everyone will want to use—in developed as well as developing nations.

Regards]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, toilets at festivals and events Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:45:10 +0000
Re: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - China Regional Program - Introduction and update on progress - by: arno http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16893 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16893
1. Will there be any Chinese projects linked to Africa and other Asian countries as was originally proposed?

2. Will the original criteria for the reinvent the toilet challenge be strictly followed? That is from www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/Globa...the-Toilet-Challenge

a. Removes germs from human waste and recovers valuable resources such as energy, clean water, and nutrients.

b. Operates “off the grid” without connections to water, sewer, or electrical lines.

c. Costs less than US$.05 cents per user per day.

d. Promotes sustainable and financially profitable sanitation services and businesses that operate in poor, urban settings.

e. Is a truly aspirational next-generation product that everyone will want to use in developed as well as developing nations.

Regards]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:38:55 +0000
Re: Ph.D. thesis: “Operation of Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) under tropical field conditions” now publically available - by: SudhirPillay http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/89-new-publications-books-articles-partner-newsletters-journals-blogs-websites-videos/16579-phd-thesis-operation-of-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-systems-dewats-under-tropical-field-conditions-now-publically-available#16892 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/89-new-publications-books-articles-partner-newsletters-journals-blogs-websites-videos/16579-phd-thesis-operation-of-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-systems-dewats-under-tropical-field-conditions-now-publically-available#16892
According to your recommendations:
1. Although granulation is not a requirement for ABRs as would be the case in UASBs, it does benefit the system. I investigated the granulation aspects for the Foxon (20006) report. Better performance was attained when granulation occurred but the conditions needed to be right for that - upflow velocities cannot be too high as washout occurs. I know that BORDA has a PhD candidate investigating biomass activity in sludge beds of ABRs in DEWATS plants. He has also seeded a plant with brewery sludge from an UASB - Nicolas would be able to point you in right direction on how to obtain that data from the PhD candidate.
2. Agree angle baffles and promoting mixing. But usual option is to have downflow pipes instead of hanging walls. Maybe a consideration for future.

Kind Regards
S]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:49:24 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: joeturner http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16891 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/205-vermicomposting-digesters-for-flush-toilets-with-filtering-of-effluent/16786-fertiliser-qualities-of-excreta-products-from-uddts-compared-to-vermicompost-digester?limit=12&start=12#16891
There are various designs for "rocket" stoves which char wood. In brief, rocket stoves are lit in a pipe which is embedded in an cabinet full of insulated material to ensure an efficient burn. If the insulation material is replaced with wood and holes are provided to allow gases to be released (which are then burned), the wood is charred.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_stove

If instead the insulation chamber was a collection vessel from a latrine, it ought to be possible to char faecal waste.

There may well be issues with the wetness of the material, smoke and gases - have you been able to overcome these, bsoutherland?]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:48:37 +0000
Re: Innovations and Private Sector: Can They Solve the Sanitation Problem? - by: ggalli http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16890 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16890
Thank you for this very interesting discussion. It is a topic I also often have critical thoughts on. I would like to respond by pointing out one thing: we should not conflate the 'private sector' with 'technological innovations'.

If you ask me: should the private sector play a role in sanitation? I would say yes! But the question is which role? The private sector can provide products and services, but this does not mean that it can take over all the tasks required to make sanitation work. States have still to fill up this role and in most cases they don't. I'm talking here about regulation, monitoring, taxation etc.

Also we should really move away from this technological mentality that a new product will fix the problem. It doesn't matter if the product comes form a US university or locally designed, sanitation is more than just a latrine. It's part of a larger system. If we keep thinking that new latrines models will solve all the problems, we will just be disappointed over and over again.

Best,
Giacomo]]>
User interface technology innovations Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:15:09 +0000
Re: Innovations and Private Sector: Can They Solve the Sanitation Problem? - by: JKMakowka http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16889 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-technology-innovations/16881-innovations-and-private-sector-can-they-solve-the-sanitation-problem#16889
I get (and like) the idea of relatively randomly funding projects and see if maybe one is actually the brake-through, but something went seriously wrong either with the selection of applicants or (more likely) with raising the interest of suitable applicants in the first place.

Where are the interesting sanitation projects from transitional countries like Malaysia (?) etc. that have a significant but not so rich middle-class (and not an extreme social stratification as in some other places) that would be really fertile ground for private sector approaches? They all seem to be stuck in the 1950ties "septic-tank and sewers" mentality, with generally very little thought put into environmental health ("flush and forget" as soon as you can afford it).

University projects from places like the US or Europe (& I guess China these days) are just too far removed from the people they are supposed to support, that usually "well intended" is the nicest way to to describe them, and largely donor funded projects in African slums are interesting, but those people are just too poor to enable self sustained private sector development (and thus the projects remain charity only).]]>
User interface technology innovations Mon, 08 Feb 2016 06:29:18 +0000