SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://www.forum.susana.org/ Sat, 30 Apr 2016 22:35:23 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://www.forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://www.forum.susana.org/ en-gb What is sanitation success? - by: F H Mughal http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-miscellaneous-any-other-topic/17870-what-is-sanitation-success#17870 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-miscellaneous-any-other-topic/17870-what-is-sanitation-success#17870 What is sanitation success?

A recent (11 April 2016) blog of Susan Davis, Executive Director of Improve International on “What is Sanitation Success?” available at improveinternational.wordpress.com/2016/...sanitation-success/, makes an interesting reading. Susan seems to have worked hard in getting the perspectives on sanitation success, from a range of organizations and institutions, including Susana.

Susan says that there is no one widely accepted definition of sanitation success, even for broadly used approaches. She is right – there may not be a standard definition for sanitation success. I would go one step further by saying that there is not even a generally-accepted definition for “sanitation,” let alone the sanitation success; or for sanitation failures.

According to Susan, the viewpoint of Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) goes like this:

The GSF works towards attainment of universal access to improved sanitation, which they measure using these indicators: number of people with access to improved sanitation, number of people living in open-defecation free environments, and the existence, and evidence of use, of a dedicated place for handwashing and availability of soap or ash (as a proxy for people washing their hands at critical times). The GSF includes in its description access to improved sanitation by all members of a community and proper handling, storage and treatment of human waste, but these are not included in their results.

The Government of India’s outlook is:

ODF is the termination of fecal-oral transmission, defined by a) no visible faces found in the environment/village; and b) every household as well as public/community institutions using a safe technology option for disposal of faces. A safe technology option means no contamination of surface soil, ground water or surface water; excreta inaccessible to flies or animals; no handling of fresh excreta; and freedom from odor and unsightly condition.

IRC Water and Sanitation Centre’s perception is:

The sanitation service level framework evaluates the services provided by the delivery of safe latrines using four indicators:type and accessibility of latrines to households (in line with national norms); use of sanitation facilities by members of the household;cleanliness, maintenance and pit emptying of the facilities; and environmental safety of fecal waste.

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)’s point of view is:

The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable a sanitation system has to (1) promote health and hygiene effectively, (2) be financially and economically viable, (3) socially acceptable and institutionally appropriate, (4) technically appropriate including operation and maintenance (O&M), and (5) protect the environment and natural resources.

- - - - fairly comprehensive!

While the perspective of other organization is also given, the standpoint of WSP (World Bank Water and Sanitation Program) is eye-catching, and goes like this:

WSP used the following performance indicators to rate relative success of sanitation case studies:

1. Prevalence of open defecation
2. Hygiene behavior
3. Access to sanitation by the poor
4. Environmental sanitation improvements
5. Extent of self-financing
6. Program cost per household
7. Range of toilet components and designs utilized
8. Local availability of sanitation wares and services
9. Regular support and monitoring
10. Implementation at scale

The definition of what constitute sanitation success, varies from country to country; and in one country, from urban areas to rural areas. Definition will also vary from one organization to another, for example, a financial institution would lay more stress on financial side.

In Pakistan, having a network of sewerage system, connected to a municipal wastewater treatment plant with sustainable operation, in urban areas will constitute a sanitation success (in a simplified form); and just having a clean toilet in rural areas, where rural population practices handwashing, would constitute a major sanitation success.

Susan Davis needs a pat on her back for her hard work is getting viewpoints from various sources.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 30 Apr 2016 17:18:03 +0000
Re: Crib\zeolite public dry toilet near Kiev (Ukraine) report - by: BPopov http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17869 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17869

1 tone of zeolite arrives from Carpathians!

Zeolite grain size 3-5 mm

350 of zeolite is put inside each chamber]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets, toilets at festivals and events Sat, 30 Apr 2016 16:08:25 +0000
Re: Crib\zeolite public dry toilet near Kiev (Ukraine) report - by: BPopov http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17868 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17868



Frame assembly






Roof construction




Wall siding


Door set up]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets, toilets at festivals and events Sat, 30 Apr 2016 16:00:59 +0000
Re: Crib\zeolite public dry toilet near Kiev (Ukraine) report - by: BPopov http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17867 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17867


Crib timber is cut and tar painted


Foundation prepared. Note zeolite filter pits





Crib construction]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets, toilets at festivals and events Sat, 30 Apr 2016 15:40:35 +0000
Crib\zeolite public dry toilet near Kiev (Ukraine) report - by: BPopov http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17866 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/170-public-toilets-community-toilets-shared-toilets-toilets-at-festivals-and-events/17866-cribzeolite-public-dry-toilet-near-kiev-ukraine-report#17866
This toilet building season I have started with a new facility at the Eco-Park”Kopilov” in the woods 30 km from Kiev north -west. Although the toilet is not completely ready yet (we have long Orthodox Easter holidays) I decided to start publishing the report.








The idea was to have here a public toilet mainly for the stuff and builders which would fit into forest environment and look kind of “authentic” while bearing all the features of the modern up-to date dry toilet . My own motivation was very much to develop a model facility to be used at the National Park tourist network in the Ukrainian Carpathians. One of the objectives was to have a passive ventilated system (no main electricity available on the site) while getting without sticking pipes and such. The other important consideration clearly expressed from the is to have a NON-urine separation system.
The basic concept comes from crib toilet design described at the “ Backcountry Sanitation Manual” by Appalachian Trail Conservancy and Green Mountain Club . The SUSANA resource link is www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2130. It is great manual! My big acknowledgments to the authors!
The crib design allows for non-pipe ventilation, mixed human waste input and looks good. The construction is simple.
One of the important features of this toilet is a zeolite filter that I put under mouldering chamber. The idea is that zeolite absorbs excessive nutrients and liquid preventing them from entering the ground water. After some time zeolite can be taken out and used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. About 350 l of zeolite was used for each chamber.
The essential crib timber antiseptic treatment was done by natural wood tar –turpentine mix (4:1). It has pleasant smell as beautiful brown-grey color after fully absorbed. We used the Estonian produced tar which costs around 10$/ liter.
The other feature of the toilet is extensive use of the hand forged elements especially in door construction which I believe attractive and fits into the style. Being a profy blacksmith myself try to use the blacksmith art whenever it is possible and strongly recommend it for other toilet builders.]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets, toilets at festivals and events Sat, 30 Apr 2016 15:10:47 +0000
Reply: Is+there+a+standard+for+handwashing+taps/stations+to+learners? - by: kamaudaniel65 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/160-handwashing-activities-at-schools/11159-is-there-a-standard-for-handwashing-tapsstations-to-learners#17862 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/160-handwashing-activities-at-schools/11159-is-there-a-standard-for-handwashing-tapsstations-to-learners#17862 Handwashing activities at schools Sat, 30 Apr 2016 14:52:39 +0000 Re: Which SuSanA working group should include the behaviour change topic - an existing working group or a new one? - by: muench http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17864 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17864
We have a willing champion for this (i.e. a working group lead) in Hanna Woodburn and a willing co-lead (Sarah Dickin), so what would be have to lose in creating a new group?

We could create a dedicated working group mailing list for people interested in behaviour change (BC), just like we have mailing lists for the other WGs. This would make it easier to send very targeted information (e.g. about upcoming webinars) to those who have an interest in BC.

The new WG would liaise with the existing WGs and help them to take up BC into their activities as well where it fits.

I think lumping it in with an existing WG would not work - the one closest to it is probably WG 9 on "Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement" and that one is already huge and it would not be fair on Carol (the working group lead) to lump her with another topic. The same applies to WG 7 ("Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects") which is also huge already and should not take on yet another topic.

The only downside I see is that the secretariat would have to make the necessary changes to the SuSanA website.

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. For general issues about the working groups of SuSanA, there is this thread which could be used for discussion: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-rel...susana-working-group
There are some working groups that have been very dormant for a long time now (when was the last time you heard from Working Groups 3, 4 and 10, for example?) so some structural modifications might be necessary. I was told that the secretariat will lead a process to review the working group structure of SuSanA between now and January 2017 when SuSanA celebrates its 10th anniversary. If anyone has suggestions or concerns about the working groups in general, please put them here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-rel...susana-working-group]]>
Relevant for all working groups Sat, 30 Apr 2016 14:12:15 +0000
Re: Evolution of the EarthAuger UDDT (a hybrid composting and urine diverting dry toilet) - in-field demonstrations in India, Ghana, South Africa and other countries - by: chuckhenry http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/16409-evolution-of-the-earthauger-uddt-a-hybrid-composting-and-urine-diverting-dry-toilet-in-field-demonstrations-in-india-ghana-south-africa-and-other-countries?limit=12&start=24#17863 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/16409-evolution-of-the-earthauger-uddt-a-hybrid-composting-and-urine-diverting-dry-toilet-in-field-demonstrations-in-india-ghana-south-africa-and-other-countries?limit=12&start=24#17863
How efficient have the NGOs been so far? There appears to be a move towards a market-based approach from the donor one of the past. Does this help bring in the private industry? Protection of technologies from copying has always been a pertinent issue – both from simple recovery of investment and also from assurance that copied products are of similar quality and not give a bad name to the original.

And in reply to Kris: You asked “which partners?“ - I meant commercialization partners that can take this from an NGO-driven activity (or a not-for profit company activity) to scale, where some profit would be made and then re-invested in the company.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 30 Apr 2016 14:04:04 +0000
Which SuSanA working group should include the behaviour change topic - an existing working group or a new one? - by: muench http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17861 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17861
Thanks for continuing the discussion that we first had in this thread and then in the first SuSanA monthly webinar on 28 April. In the second part of said webinar, Hanna Woodburn spoke about how the topic of behavior change can be furthered within the SuSanA network, and we discussed how learning and exchange about behavior change can take place on the SuSanA platform.

The recording from this webinar from 28 April 2016 is now available here:



Hanna Woodburn's input and the discussion about a possible working group on behaviour change starts at 23:00 minutes into the recording, i.e. see here:

youtu.be/Q10xcwiyAPw?t=23m

After Hanna's input (verbal input, without slides), we had a lively discussion - both orally (listen to it on the video) and written (in the chat field). I copy here what was said in the chat field (please note that some questions asked in the chat field were then answered verbally in the video, so the chat needs to be read in conjunction with the video):

++++++++++

Kris M.: why not WG2 (Market development), after all if you change behaviour you create demand I guess it is really cross cutting and can be covered by several WGs?

Elisabeth von Muench: Hanna, would you like to turn your webcam back on? Would be nice to see you while you're talking.

Kris M.: hmm, but behaviour change is just a term, I would rather think about various methods, and those are related to specific topics. Too many groups can also hide topics

Ryan Rowe: Hello all, would other members find it useful if the WG offered a brief summary of the evidence that exists for BC?

Elisabeth von Muench: perhaps one task of a new working group could be to interact actively with the other Working Groups on this.

Addise Amado: Yes please, thank you

Ada Oko-Williams: On the contrary, i think having a dedicacted WG may just allow and creat the space for the experts in that area to really be in their space nd elemant ans share freely not tagging along as cross cutting for every other group

Elisabeth von Muench: by the way, this is an overview of existing SuSanA working groups: www.susana.org/en/working-groups/overview

Kris M.: ok, but "behaviour change" in what... maybe I am not up to the latest buzz words, but for me this is always connected to a spefic topic. like demand creation, or handwashing, or toilet use etc.

ARNO ROSEMARIN: Do we need a code of conduct for sanitation

Elisabeth von Muench: there are about 1500 to 3000 members per working group (!). Each time when someone registers for SuSanA, they're asked which working group they would like to join.

Ryan Rowe: Kris - good point - it could be BC for Household Water Treatment, Handwashing, Community-led total sanitation - finding the overlaps would be helpful

Ada Oko-Williams: And really people dont have to be spread thin and work or engage with all the working groups so the question of too many WG should not arise

Ryan Rowe: Agree with Ada

Elisabeth von Muench: Are there other BC working groups in other networks outside of SuSanA?

Addise Amado: What about the role of KAP?

Annkathrin Tempel: I am happy to see more activities on behaviour change on the SuSanA platform, be it with a new WG or be it without one..

Hanna Woodburn: Yes, I think it would be broad

Bella Monse: I agree with Annkathrin, important that the topic comes in.

Hanna Woodburn: I have to run, but please feel free to contact me at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it if you have any further comments!

Kris M.: maybe there could be a vote? The forum supports votes?

Ryan Rowe: My vote is to create a separate working group for BC - this is such an important topic on its own then I feel it does it a disservice to place it under another group

Qamar Iqbal: Voting can be a good option; great Kris. I am also of view that separate working group for Behaviour Change

Ryan Rowe: Colleagues, it was nice to see some familiar faces - I must go but will follow with interest the dsicussions/decision on this topic - I will add my voice to the forum a bit later today or tomorrow

Kris M.: Ok but which one then, I guess WG9?

Carol McCreary: Good morning. Laggard here on Left Coast USA. We discussed on line BC and WG9. It doesn't especially fit but as co-lead for that group I can say we could use someone else.

+++++++++

There is also a 1-pager concept note that Hanna and Sarah prepared in March for the SuSanA core group ("SuSanA Behavior Change Working Group Concept Note"):




Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Relevant for all working groups Sat, 30 Apr 2016 12:09:53 +0000
Re: [SuSanA forum] Re: Kampala WASH Symposium with integrated 21st SuSanA Meeting - in Kampala, Uganda, 20-23 June 2016 (SuSanA meetings) - by: bernardmiti http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/232-susana-meetings/16654-kampala-wash-symposium-with-integrated-21st-susana-meeting-in-kampala-uganda-20-23-june-2016--wg-meetings?limit=12&start=12#17859 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/232-susana-meetings/16654-kampala-wash-symposium-with-integrated-21st-susana-meeting-in-kampala-uganda-20-23-june-2016--wg-meetings?limit=12&start=12#17859

Regards,


Bernard Miti
Country Director
Zambia WASHE Advocacy Network
Lusaka,Zambia.]]>
SuSanA meetings Sat, 30 Apr 2016 10:34:16 +0000
Re: Water Filters Models to clean up waters of a polluted river water (Kenya)? - by: Kimani http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/249-drinking-water-treatment/17834-water-filters-models-to-clean-up-waters-of-a-polluted-river-water-kenya#17860 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/249-drinking-water-treatment/17834-water-filters-models-to-clean-up-waters-of-a-polluted-river-water-kenya#17860
We are much more worried about the conversion of the dirty water to reusable Water.

Thanks.]]>
Drinking water treatment Sat, 30 Apr 2016 10:13:04 +0000
Re: Which SuSanA working group is the natural home for the "behavior change" topic? WG 12? Or WG 9? - by: WASHanna http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17858 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17858
I understand the perspectives that are being expressed, but I'm a bit concerned about including behavior change in WG9. If the WG9 challenge addressed is to the need "reach the public, the press, and policy makers worldwide" this would seemingly only help raise the topic of behavior change in an advocacy sense. It wouldn't fit the need to have a space to discuss the technical aspects of behavior change...the "How". Do other people see this being an issue as well?]]>
Relevant for all working groups Fri, 29 Apr 2016 19:30:11 +0000
Re: Which SuSanA working group is the natural home for the "behavior change" topic? WG 12? Or WG 9? - by: Carol McCreary http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17857 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17857
I'm sorry I had to miss most of yesterday's webnair ‘Opportunities and challenges of achieving WASH behaviour change’ I'm on the west coast of North America and 4am was just too early. When the webnair is posted, Erin Swearing and Hanna Woodbury will help me grasp the scope of behavior change and get clearer on the WG9 fit.

It might be useful for us to go back and read the earlier Forum thread on the topic "Which SuSanA working group is the natural home for the "behavior change" topic? WG 12? Or WG 9?"

Ryan,

WG 9 is no longer separated into 9a and 9b. The former 9b - Sanitation as a Business - has indeed mostly moved to WG2. The former 9a- Sanitation Awareness and Sanitation Marketing are largely in WG9.

Your suggested name for the Working Group 9 - Behavior Change, Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement is pretty long. My preference would be to put Behavior Change at the end, because I tend to define behavior change broadly, as desired action. Others who are working in areas like Behavior Change Communication or Social Marketing, however, may define it far more precisely.

Everyone,

If this working group is going to expand, we'll need participation commitments from behavior change champions and possibly a new co-lead.

Again, I am sorry to have missed yesterday's discussion and look forward to catching up with you. Special thanks to Sarah Dickin for arranging the webnair and to Erin and Hanna for setting the scene.

Carol

PS. Would anyone be interested in exploring the topic of taboos surrounding toilets and sanitation? Things have certainly changed in the past decade globally. At PHLUSH we continue to explore ways to simply get the conversation going. As author David Humes points out in his new book on transportation Door to Door, the word "infrastructure" puts everyone to sleep. Combine that with more private excreta taboos and progress is very difficult indeed! Clearly those of you working in the developing world have made spectacular progress getting past taboos. How did you do it?]]>
Relevant for all working groups Fri, 29 Apr 2016 18:01:43 +0000
Re: Which SuSanA working group is the natural home for the "behavior change" topic? WG 12? Or WG 9? - by: ryanrowe http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17856 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/69-relevant-for-all-working-groups/16224-which-susana-working-group-should-include-the-behaviour-change-topic-an-existing-working-group-or-a-new-one?limit=12&start=12#17856
Thanks for hosting the webinar yesterday and for inviting member input to where to place behavior change among the family of working groups. Yesterday in the webinar, I suggested creating a new group, but I have since given this more thought and would recommend including it in #9, as others have suggested.

Of the 12 existing working groups - #9 seems the best fit as it includes social marketing (9a). As social marketing is a tool to generate demand for WASH-related solutions, it is also very much tied to behavior change: knowledge, attitudes (and social norms), and practices (behaviors).

Since creating a new WG would require a new volunteer/champion, this is another argument for including it in #9. But I would suggest raising the profile to emphasize the importance and vast expanse of behavior change, perhaps by explicitly including it in the title.

Perhaps also worth considering whether the current definition of 9b can be consolidated into WG #2 which relates to financing and market development, and therefore relates to affordability and sustainability.

Then 9b could be devoted specifically to behavior change as it is broad enough (multiple areas of WASH) and deep enough (multiple levels and outcomes)

So something like this:

WG 9 - Behavior Change, Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement

9a: Developing an open-source data base on best practices in integrated social marketing and to establish a formal network of experts in this field.
9b: Provide an up-to-date source of knowledge (academic and grey literature) and opportunity to debate approaches to WASH behavior change, across a range of interventions, levels/units of analysis, and outcomes.

Hope this is helpful somewhat...

Best regards
Ryan]]>
Relevant for all working groups Fri, 29 Apr 2016 16:50:23 +0000
Re: Kampala WASH Symposium with integrated 21st SuSanA Meeting - in Kampala, Uganda, 20-23 June 2016 - by: Moritz http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/232-susana-meetings/16654-kampala-wash-symposium-with-integrated-21st-susana-meeting-in-kampala-uganda-20-23-june-2016--wg-meetings?limit=12&start=12#17855 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/232-susana-meetings/16654-kampala-wash-symposium-with-integrated-21st-susana-meeting-in-kampala-uganda-20-23-june-2016--wg-meetings?limit=12&start=12#17855
The SuSanA working group 6 on cities will organize a meeting during the WASH Symposium in Kampala. We think about a one hour meeting followed by networking/catching up during food and drinks. Anyone is welcome, including non-SuSanA members.

We are looking for contributions to the agenda of the meeting. Please contact me or Prit if you would like to contribute (moritz.gold(at)eawag.ch, prit.salian(at)gmail.com).

Several side events are currently being submitted to the Symposium on sanitation in cities and Kampala is a great place for sanitation sightseeing (e.g. one of the biggest faecal sludge treatment plants) and to discuss how sanitation planning unfolds in practice. So, come to Kampala in June. It`s going to be awesome!!!

Cheers,
Moritz]]>
SuSanA meetings Fri, 29 Apr 2016 12:28:46 +0000