SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 21 Dec 2014 18:39:44 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: KeithBell
But I still like your point and believe we should also focus on how a toxic, polluted environment shifts flora in the wrong direction and out of balance.

Here's a 2014 study about organic pollutants in septic waste (not about pathogens):
Pharmaceuticals, perfluorosurfactants, and other organic wastewater compounds in public drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer.
Septic systems appear to be the primary source of OWCs in Cape Cod groundwater, although wastewater treatment plants and other sources were potential contributors to several wells.
Faecal sludge management Sun, 21 Dec 2014 17:19:41 +0000
Re: Nice and quick overview about constructed wetland's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: F H Mughal
The attached publication, a joint publication of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency,Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, and
Natural Resources Conservation Service, is a guide on wetlands, and goes on to define the basics, like, what are wetlands, why restoration is necessary, importance of wetlands, etc. It is an interesting publication and, would be useful to the new users in the field.

F H Mughal]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Sun, 21 Dec 2014 07:17:53 +0000
Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: SusannahSoilet
For a pathogen/parasite to successfully infect a new host through fecal sludge, it must surmount several steps:

1: gain contact

2: retain infectivity - i.e. have enough vitality to establish and procreate once contact is made

3: overcome the potential host's own defences - which are influenced by past exposure, diet, hygiene, genetics and concurrent medical conditions.

I would like to cite helminth control practices used in organic livestock farming here in the UK, which are:
Clean grazing (foraged feedstuffs) for susceptible individuals to reduce burden of exposure;
Optimum nutrition and avoidance of overcrowding;
Strategic use of anthelmintics, vaccines;
Breeding for resistance.

It might be worth considering that humans have evolved alongside a multitude of parasites and pathogens, and encountering some at low levels actually have beneficial impacts on protective gut microbiota and immune responses. In developing nations scenarios, there are usually individuals who appear remarkably healthy in the face of vast health challenges. Too clean can perhaps be damaging as too dirty!

Susannah Batstone, Soilet Systems.
Convinced that tiny things can solve big problems!]]>
Faecal sludge management Sun, 21 Dec 2014 07:15:29 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday
Dennis, the idea would be to treat this blackwater just as well as if we were dumping it into the environment, only never dump it into the environment, so maybe somewhere between 0 and 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. It would be key to eliminate any smell or color, so users do not enough notice the difference.

Detlef, thanks for these details. I think with so much rain falling on the constructed wetlands here, we should be able to keep the same amount of water cycle after cycle, and there would be plenty of greywater that could be added whenever needed.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 21 Dec 2014 04:43:58 +0000
Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: KeithBell clostridium perfringens.

High concentration of Clostridium perfringens found at 45 days reveals a risk to use the digested slurry on the arable land. Some Clostridium spp. may cause infection in animals e.g. blackleg (Clostridium chauveoi), malignant (Clostridium septicum and Clostridium
sordelli edema), black disease (Clostridium novyi), and enterotoxemia (three types of Clostridium perfringens).

Pathogen Reduction in Small-Scale Biogas Plants
in a Tropical Region - Bench-Scale Experiments
, 2008]]>
Focus on biogas production, issues surrounding biogas sanitation Sat, 20 Dec 2014 22:57:31 +0000
Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: muench
The suggestion I would make to you is this: If you want to bring up the botulism issue again in a new thread, please be so kind to include in your post a link to the earlier discussion (you are right, Dan-Eric might have missed it, which is why you should have pointed it out; otherwise we would start from scratch unnecessarily).

You could simply add in a future similar case a sentence such as this "As we have discussed here on the forum in the past (see: xxx (URL of the post)), I am concerned about xx and invite you to take a look at that thread to find out more about my concerns."

Thank you.
The same goes of course for any other user, it is always helpful to provide a link to an earlier discussion if it exists (if you forgot where it was, use the search field above to find it again).

Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 20 Dec 2014 21:50:19 +0000
Re: Is there a standard for handwashing taps/stations to learners? - by: jbr
Thanks for reminding about the Three Star Guide. The reference for 10-15 learners for handwashing station is a good one.

In case the space of the toilet block does not permit a large handwashing station in proximity, we were considering that the minimum number of handwashing taps for toilets should be equal to the number of toilets in the school block. Would appreciate if this rational is cross-checked with the "think tank" events.

Very best,
Handwashing activities at schools Sat, 20 Dec 2014 20:33:03 +0000
Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: KeithBell Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 20 Dec 2014 20:26:55 +0000 Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: christoph there was a lenthly discussion in this forum about this aspect (here)? - You took part in it.

Let us not repeat the discussion here please.

Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 20 Dec 2014 16:42:12 +0000
Re: Hygienic aspects of sewage sludge after AD - by: KeithBell pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant waste? My general understanding is clostridium spores are selected out in AD and may cause chronic botulism in the environment including in livestock and humans. I wonder if adding lactic acid bacteria to the sludge would balance it just as they appear to do in the mammalian intestine.

Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes, 2014
In conclusion, BGWs could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals.
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 20 Dec 2014 10:34:36 +0000
Re: "Pulling" away from Open Defecation via Aspirational Marketing - by: canaday
These are great ideas.

Let's remember my recent comment that I think that many open defecators prefer to be outside for fresher air and (maybe not realizing it or putting it in these terms) the washing of the ground by the rain and the sterilization of its surface via solar ultraviolet light, thus it could be a good idea to offer them a more economical privacy structure with no roof. In fact, the privacy wall could be a hedge of plants, which would give enough privacy for it to be safely and conveniently right next to people's homes. (The fecal drop hole could have a lid to keep the rain out.) I recently found some unusual evidence that users might be especially happy in a room without a roof :

Good luck and count on me.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Sanitation as a business Sat, 20 Dec 2014 03:58:50 +0000
Re: "Pulling" away from Open Defecation via Aspirational Marketing - by: denniskl "or even an Elisabeth" comment; that was very clumsily put and certainly does not reflect the respect I have for your experience, Elisabeth.

That should have read "I will never be ..... (and especially an Elisabeth!)"

Thank you Chris C for pointing out my badly phrased comment]]>
Sanitation as a business Sat, 20 Dec 2014 03:05:36 +0000
Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: TeamWTR
Blanca E. Jiménez C., Catalina Maya R. and Germán Salgado V. (2001).
The Elimination of Helminth Ova, Fecal Coliforms, Salmonella and Protozoan Cyst by Various Physicochemical Processes in Wastewater and Sludge. Water Science and Technology.43 (12): 179-182. **Indexed in the MEDLINE database.

Jiménez, C. Maya, E. Sánchez, A. Romero, L. Lira and J. A. Barrios (2002).
Comparison of the Quantity and Quality of the Microbiological Content of Sludge In Countries with Low and High Content of Pathogens. IWA Journal Water Science and Technology. 46 (10): 17-24

Diaz-Avelar J., Barrios J.A., Maya C. and Jiménez B. (2004)
Reduction of Helminths Ova and Faecal Coliforms in Biological Sludge using a Biodegradable Acid (PAA). Water Environmental Management, 7:299- 306.

Jiménez B., Mendez J., Barrios J., Salgado G. and Sheinbaum C. (2004)
Characterization and Evaluation of Potential Reuse Options for Wastewater Sludge and Combined Sewer Systems in Mexico. Water Science and Technology, 49(10):171-178. ISSN: 0273-1223.

Jiménez B., Barrios J., Mendez J. and Diaz J. (2004)
Sustainable Management of Sludge in Developing Countries. Water Science and Technology, 49(10):251-258. ISSN: 0273-1223.

Best regards,

Faecal sludge management Fri, 19 Dec 2014 19:52:14 +0000
Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: JKMakowka Of course there are some opportunistic pathogens that are wide spread in healthy populations, but those are probably not such a huge concern in most cases.

Measuring fecal coliforms only makes sense as a measure of treatment efficiency as they are by themselves (mostly) non pathogenic.

Maybe you could explain what the actual purpose of knowing/measuring those pathogens would be for you?]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 19 Dec 2014 19:36:20 +0000
Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: JKMakowka [Start of Page 2 of the discussion]

Marijn Zandee wrote:

One further comment, I think it would also be interesting to consider in the debate what the influence of pathogens that can be transferred between animals and humans is. Especially if some studies exist concerning the relative transmission rates of human-human and animal-human pathogen transfer in rural communities?

I guess you are referring to the dung mixed into the systems? This is an interesting topic indeed, but as long as the overall hygienic conditions in regards to animals living very close to humans (especially chicken, which are all around you in rural Nepal except maybe your bedroom ) I don't think it makes a huge difference as long as general precautions are taken in the application of the sludge.

I also read a study a while ago, where they compared E.coli strains between chicken and children living close to / on these chicken-farms (I think the study was done in the rural US) and where surprised that there was very little overlap, e.g. different strains seem to "keep" to their preferred host intestines. But yeah, probably not that transferable to a situation like in Nepal and those E.colis are not actually pathogens for the most part.

Anyways, I think household hygiene in general and keeping the animals in a separated enclosure is probably vastly more effective than trying to improve the safety of slurry application further. Further studies/investigations on that topic would be interesting indeed though.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 19 Dec 2014 19:26:21 +0000