SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://www.forum.susana.org/ Sat, 25 Oct 2014 04:10:54 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://www.forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://www.forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Developing urine diversion systems in a developed world context - by: KaiMikkel http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/1853-developing-urine-diversion-systems-in-a-developed-world-context?limit=12&start=24#10690 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/1853-developing-urine-diversion-systems-in-a-developed-world-context?limit=12&start=24#10690
For example:

1) Ostara has at least once availed itself of magnesium chloride sourced from a supplier in China (the procurement of which undoubtedly involved the use of fossil-fuel powered ships) [this could be mitigated in some cases by using locally derived bittern;

2) The production of lye (sodium hydroxide) is inherently unsustainable,

3) Ostara's reactor is designed primarily with legacy wastewater systems in mind;

4) Ostara's technology is heavily dependent on large sources of capital and large amounts of energy.

Based on the above, Ostara's "Reactor 2000" strikes me as a classic example of a "green" techno-fix; in other words, something that's being billed as "green" but which will not in the end solve the underlying problem that it purports to be tackling. And as a result this is not something that I would support given that as far as I'm concerned those scant public funds available should instead be going towards systems (like that being pushed by Rich Earth Institute) that will better stand the test of time (and, in particular, the low-water and low-energy future facing us). In marked contrast to Ostara's "solution", source-separation and reuse can be very easily implemented using locally sourced materials and facilitated, if need be, via horse-drawn (or even bicycle-powered) forms of transportation.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 23:02:50 +0000
Re: Play with Faecal Sludge Trucks! - by: muench http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8929-play-with-faecal-sludge-trucks#10689 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8929-play-with-faecal-sludge-trucks#10689
I was just wondering what should be the term we should be pushing for when talking about these vehicles? I am asking because I want to do a bit of a clean up operation on Wikipedia.

You called it a "faecal sludge truck" in your card game. Did that come about after long deliberations? I would be inclined to call it a "vacuum tanker".

On Wikipedia I also see pages on:
Vacuum truck: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_truck
Honeysucker: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeysucker_(truck)
Cesspool emptier: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesspool_emptier

I would merge them all into one and then have re-directs from the other terms to the new page (and of course mention the other names on that page).

But I want to make sure that I use the right term that a majority of people from SuSanA would support.
I see that the Compendium calls it a "vacuum truck":
ecompendium.sswm.info/sanitation-technol...ansport?group_code=c

I guess it is not really a vacuum because something is simply pumped from A to B but it is the most commonly used term, right?

Greetings,
Elisabeth]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 24 Oct 2014 21:24:26 +0000
Here is a way to promote handwashing - by: lvolat http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10688-here-is-a-way-to-promote-handwashing#10688 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10688-here-is-a-way-to-promote-handwashing#10688 Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 24 Oct 2014 20:16:14 +0000 Re: Developing urine diversion systems in a developed world context - by: KaiMikkel http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/1853-developing-urine-diversion-systems-in-a-developed-world-context?limit=12&start=24#10687 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/1853-developing-urine-diversion-systems-in-a-developed-world-context?limit=12&start=24#10687 Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 20:02:10 +0000 Survey on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: darao http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/93-inclusive-sanitation-people-with-disabilities/10686-survey-on-inclusive-wash-in-schools-in-low-income-countries#10686 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/93-inclusive-sanitation-people-with-disabilities/10686-survey-on-inclusive-wash-in-schools-in-low-income-countries#10686
I am a student studying at Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) of Loughborough University, and am currently working on a research study on inclusive WASH in schools with focus to understand current best practice and lessons learned.
I am writing to you who have experience in managing WASH in school with inclusive focus to seek your advice if you can share your experience through responding the questionnaire that I prepared (link below), or share contact of person who may be able to assist me on this.

www.surveymonkey.com/s/3HGBFL7

The focus is to understand available practice and extent of stakeholder involvement by activity phase.
It would be great if I can receive feedback by 9th Nov.
there is no need at all to answer all questions, you may find many of question not relevant to your experience, then please just skip all and try to answer the one relevant to you.
It would be great to know your experience and would also appreciate if you could comment on the survey itself.
I thank you very much in advance and looking forward to hearing from you.

Daisuke]]>
Inclusive sanitation (people with disabilities) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 18:28:50 +0000
Re: Article in The Namibian newspaper: Communities unhappy with dry toilet project - by: Maria123 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10685 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10685
So for now I will try to read as much as I can and If I'm to get stucked along the way then I'll let you know.

I will keep you all updated. Since I'm not only here to gain but to also share.

Greetings
Maria ]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 17:01:56 +0000
The IWA WaterWiki is looking for a Sanitation and Development Editor! - by: CParkerWaterWiki http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/20-jobs-and-internships/10684-the-iwa-waterwiki-is-looking-for-a-sanitation-and-development-editor#10684 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/20-jobs-and-internships/10684-the-iwa-waterwiki-is-looking-for-a-sanitation-and-development-editor#10684
The review process is absolutely essential for ensuring and maintaining the quality of WaterWiki content.

By reviewing newly-added content you will have your name featured extensively on the WaterWiki and the opportunity to promote your own work via our Editorial Group page, which remains among the top 3 most popular pages on the site.

Please note that this is a voluntary activity and no financial remuneration will be given, however, all reviewers will be entitled to exclusive discount on IWAP books based on their level of contribution, awarded on a 6-monthly basis.

We ask all editors to set up weekly email alerts to be notified of new content and to select relevant content to review as and when it appears. We anticipate that each editor will have to review 2-3 articles in their subject area per month and that probably only 1 of these will require editorial intervention.

We require that all WaterWiki Editors:
  • Hold a teaching or research position at a university or academic institution.
  • Be fluent in academic and professional English.
  • Be pro-active in reviewing all content within their subject area as it appears on the site.
  • Submit a summary of their activities every 6 months along with confirmation of whether they wish to continue in the role


The Editorial positions we are currently recruiting for are:
  1. Spanish-language Editor
  2. Water Law/Policy/Governance Editor
  3. Sludge Management Editor
  4. Drinking Water Quality Editor
  5. Water Supply and Distribution Editor
  6. Sanitation and Development Editor
  7. Water, Energy and Climate Change Editor
  8. Water Resources Editor
  9. Water Treatment Editor
  10. Health-Related Microbiology Editor
  11. Water Reuse Editor
  12. Wastewater Treatment Editor


More positions may be added at a later point.

We will require that all potential Editors demonstrate a deep knowledge of the subject area as well as a basic knowledge of how to use the site.

If you would like to be considered for a position in the WaterWiki Editorial Group, please email Chloe Parker for further information at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .]]>
Jobs and internships Fri, 24 Oct 2014 14:47:20 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: denniskl http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683
Interesting topic but I am not quite clear about what you are looking for.

By "Climate Resilient Development" are you raising design questions regarding sanitation systems that can be fortified / protected against climate change impacts?]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 13:01:05 +0000
Re: Bringing Sanitation Innovations to Market (B-SIM) (WSUP, UK and Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: tgoodwin http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#10682 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#10682
I'll answer on behalf of Andy. Overall, progress has been slower than we expected for several reasons:

First, we're dealing with an experimental technology initiative with a large and diverse set of actors. I’m sure everyone involved in the program feels both how exciting it is to be working with other great pioneers, and also recognizes the difficulty in trying to do so cohesively and effectively. We are in a particularly challenging position to handle this dynamic, as one of the only grantees currently working specifically on 'market activation.'

Second, as a new business unit within WSUP structuring itself to create startup businesses, and do so in the leanest manner possible, this grant (which is essentially to setup 4 new pilot business) required a lot of internal capacity development for us, with regard not only to new people, but also developing our business creation approach to be faster and more effective than in past cases (where we’ve developed new startup businesses in partnership with the various corporate innovation teams at Unilever — including their new business unit and open innovation department).

We're experimenting with an organizational structure to deliver the grant that aims to exit what we call the 'customer development' phase of commercializing these technologies as cheaply and quickly as possible. It's a delicate balance between hiring for fastest milestone delivery and hiring for the long-term sustainability of a fledgling social business.

To balance this, we work through extremely lean country teams and consultants to supplement these teams in places where there are capacity gaps. Orchestrating these teams in 4 countries at once has been our greatest challenge to date.

To hire our core country teams in Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, and Bangladesh we had to first find what we call 'Enterprise Leads’ --who are each responsible for piloting a business and ideally leading it up until the point it's ready for it's first management team. Finding local manager-level candidates with the level of experience, risk appetite, and vision for what we're trying to achieve -- while also not breaking the bank — is difficult.

In a traditional startup environment, you would find co-founders dedicated to the cause and willing to take reduced pay in return for equity. In this environment of intrapraneurship, you can easily find yourself with an unsustainable payroll structure from the outset if you don't hire skillfully. While working with visionary funders like BMGF helps in that we are able to fund staff more like a project than a sustainable business in these early stages, we are constantly thinking about how to best structure startup teams for both efficiency and a smooth path toward ultimately making each business self-sustaining and investable.

Ultimately, we must balance the cost of hiring for skills in difficult talent markets with the desire for strong team continuity through carrying a business to the point of investability. Since the end-game is investable businesses, if we make a model work but do so with an unsustainable team structure, the process of re-structuring the team for cost later on will pose a major threat to carrying forward any one of our models.

To discuss Bangladesh more directly:

The grant in Bangladesh is to “activate the market for on-site sanitation using new toilet designs in Rangpur, Bangladesh” — ideally by utilizing Gates RTTC designs (but this is not ultimately a constraint if we find other designs more suitable and market ready.

We hired the Bangladesh Enterprise Lead about 6 months ago. He is a young diaspora Bangladeshi from Texas, who moved from a Mongolian VC to work with us. He was the only candidate of such a profile that made it into the hiring funnel, and our fortune to find him was only through personal connection.

Other candidates were all Bangladeshi nationals with a "career-NGO” background. Few had ever worked for private companies — almost all had about 15-20 years of project management experience, with no career progression toward bigger projects or more responsibility. While this would be ok for hiring more of a project administrator for a set initiative, it presents huge challenges for a program that includes designing a business model from scratch and building a responsive team that can iterate and evolve the business.

In 6 months, progress has been steady, but slow. First, we originally intended to launch in Rangpur, a small city in the Northwest. However, after initial visits, we determined it wasn't an appropriate foothold market for RTTC. There were a number of active toilet subsidization programs, and residents were too poor to be in the market for upgrading beyond basic sanitation.

Shifting cities required a fresh evaluation of some of Bangladesh's urban areas, and making inroads with the various local city corporations to get an early indication of how supportive the local government actors would be for a program like this. We found the sanitation-as-a-business approach to be very difficult to grasp for many city leaders here, as the poor are not perceived as willing to pay for it, and Bangladesh has a long history of large NGO subsidization programs for latrines. Subsidization, of course, was a huge step in curbing open defecation here over the last 15 years, but it makes the idea of paid sanitation a tricky one.

Toeing the line of social business here is particularly challenging, because if you want to operate as an NGO, it requires a set of approvals and promises of very specific coverage targets agreed with the bureau. However, if you want to operate as a business, city officials may not see any reason to offer important collaborations, such as land concessions or allocation of engineers. Businesses are stereotyped as cutthroat and necessarily corrupt — the practice of paying to get things done is common and accepted.

We ultimately decided to launch our pilot in Chittagong, Bangladesh's second city. The people here benefit from a higher percentage of formal employment than other areas, due to the RMG and shipping industries located here, and basic community improvements in low-income wards have been made by the excellent work of a 10 year UNDP Urban Partnerships for Poverty Reduction program.

The idea of selecting pilot markets is interesting for RTTC, because you’re generally looking for favorable conditions that are still mostly representative of how the market will develop over the long term, rather than looking purely for suitable pilot conditions.

UPPR built roads, water wells, and communal latrines and created a effective community organization structure that we'll be able to build on in marketing sanitation. The prevalence of basic latrine access for most of the population means the low-income market is in prime position to continue moving toward better sanitation as families decide to trade up to more private solutions.

We expect to be able to build on this structure as the UPPR program is retired next year, and believe RTTC toilets could be an appealing offer for this market. In particular, offering toilets with better waste containment and collection service would be invaluable in communities that suffer from heavy monsoon flooding and poor drainage.

Waste treatment is also an attractive path as Chittagong does not feature any functional waste treatment facilities, and 0% of fecal sludge is currently disposed safely. Combined with the fact that many people bathe-in and drink surface water from local ponds, people are very concerned with increasing the overall hygiene and surface water quality of their community.

To date, we have wrapped up a period of intense market research looking across household economics, current sanitation choices, regulatory environment, and reactions to RTTC toilet concepts. We are now conducting design research to build on these market insights and develop technology-independent business concepts. However, several Gates portfolio technologies look attractive as hardware options.

In the coming months, we'll be creating a plan for government capacity development, using a 'collaborative projects' approach we've been developing in Zambia over the last few months. This approach toward identifying areas of alignment between the expected business activities and government stakeholders' priorities will hopefully shift the dynamic between sanitation actors and the government toward a more win-win scenario. From there, our aim is to begin selling new toilets on a free market basis (as the grant describes) in 2015.

Biggest successes so far:
Hiring a solid core team and bringing in the right supplemental expertise to develop and begin testing new approaches to B-SIM.

Main challenges / frustration: Getting up to speed on BMGF project and partnership universe, and making sense of 4 very diverse markets at once.

Links and further readings related to this project: None

To what extent have you achieved the goals already? Market research and consumer insights work either finalized or coming soon in each country. Approach to capacity development defined in Zambia, currently being transferred to other countries. Final pre-pilot business planning and financial modeling underway in Zambia, and coming soon in other countries.

What have been enabling factors? Willingness of people to participate in the research process. In each country, both consumers and stakeholders are eager to be part of developing solutions, and that is critical to designing approaches that work.

When can your technology be brought to scale and under which conditions? N/A

Where do you see its biggest niche or application area? N/A]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 24 Oct 2014 12:34:31 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Emilio http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681
As Florian said water is not safe or pathogene free, the first chamber just retains suspended and floating solids. Now the water table depth at 1.5 - 2 m seems quite superficial, and in case of heavy rain it may flood specially if soil infiltration rate is low.

Under this conditions a two pit latrine may not be the best solution.

Please give more details on the site you are working

regards
Emilio]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 12:24:45 +0000
Re: Article in The Namibian newspaper: Communities unhappy with dry toilet project - by: muench http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10680 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10680

If I had to pose a research question it would be "what is hampering the upscaling of Otji toilets in Namibia?" - rather than looking at some fine technical details of the toilet...

Perhaps you could even team up with a second student and do it as a tandem: one to look at technical aspects, one to look at policy and institutional aspects.

This paper asked the same question for the case of Omaruru:

Ingle, R., Berdau, S., Kleemann, F., Arndt, P. (2012). What does it take to convince decision makers in Omaruru, Namibia to scale up urine diversion dehydration “Otji toilets”?. 4th International Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere, Finland

www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1608

One hyphothesis I have is that the money (grants) from the European Union that seems to be available is always promising flush toilets and sewer systems "soon" so people rather hope for that than go for the simpler and cheaper Otji toilets. Could that be a factor or do I have completely the wrong idea?

Cheers,
Elisabeth]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 11:58:35 +0000
Re: City Partnerships for Urban Sanitation Service Delivery (BMGF and DfID funded) - by: hoffma http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10539-video-about-two-dry-sanitation-service-models-by-utilities-in-peru#10679 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10539-video-about-two-dry-sanitation-service-models-by-utilities-in-peru#10679
I would like to give you follow up on your question about Economics:

The second case (SEDE Juliaca) requiered a more complex systeme (high water table). All SERVICE ACTiVITIES are included in the tariff (2,80 USD per month, for 750 hoeseholds):
- Dried feces (twin vault): 6 month collection, treatment in vermicomposting followed by solarization
- Urine: collection (small bore sewer, storage and transport to co-treatment in the existent WWTP
- Greywater: collection (small bore sewer) and treatment in constructed wetlands

INVESTMENT costs are not included in tariffs (Peruvian regulation), so, $1,790 (2,750 soles) investment in treatment per household means - for the utility:
- Construction of Vermicomposting and solarization, 8 compartments each and station for reception/operation
- Instalation of 64 Plastic tanks (5m³) with small bore sewer for urine drainage
- Instalation of 7 constructed wetlands with small bore sewer for greywater
- Training for operation stuff
- Training for user of UD-toilets

In this case sewer connection for the settlement would be twice as expensive.

In the first case (Moyobamba) the service is less complex (onsite disposal/use of urine and greywater is aceptable) - and sewer would be no option.

Regards, Heike]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 11:06:48 +0000
Re: Article in The Namibian newspaper: Communities unhappy with dry toilet project - by: Maria123 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10678 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/10649-reseach-topic-assistance-otji-toilets-uddts-in-namibia?limit=12&start=12#10678 [Start of Page 2 of the discussion thread]

Dear Chris

You have given me very interesting ideas regarding my research.
The Research will only be conducted next year, for now I'm just reviewing some literature and getting ideas so that I don't spend much time on this next year hence as they say "the early bird catches the biggest worm.

I've already made arrangements regarding the laboratory, so that is now sorted.

This is really helping a lot. I now have a broad vision of my research.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 24 Oct 2014 11:05:43 +0000
Re: Press Release: iDE Cambodia hits 100,000 latrine sales in 2 years (single or double pit pour flush toilets, Easy Latrine) - and general discussion - by: denniskl http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-upscaling-sanitation-governance-institutional-aspects-sanitation-policies/8964-press-release-ide-cambodia-hits-100000-latrine-sales-in-2-years-single-or-double-pit-pour-flush-toilets-easy-latrine-and-general-discussion?limit=12&start=36#10677 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-upscaling-sanitation-governance-institutional-aspects-sanitation-policies/8964-press-release-ide-cambodia-hits-100000-latrine-sales-in-2-years-single-or-double-pit-pour-flush-toilets-easy-latrine-and-general-discussion?limit=12&start=36#10677
Am interested to learn more about all the various options such as eco let but maybe we take this discussion onto different thread?

Else hijacking iDE news and getting off the thread title:)

Will set up new thread and advise link here]]>
Upscaling, sanitation governance, institutional aspects, sanitation policies Fri, 24 Oct 2014 10:26:30 +0000
Re: Press Release: iDE Cambodia hits 100,000 latrine sales in 2 years (single or double pit pour flush toilets, Easy Latrine) - and general discussion - by: christoph http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-upscaling-sanitation-governance-institutional-aspects-sanitation-policies/8964-press-release-ide-cambodia-hits-100000-latrine-sales-in-2-years-single-or-double-pit-pour-flush-toilets-easy-latrine-and-general-discussion?limit=12&start=36#10676 http://www.forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-upscaling-sanitation-governance-institutional-aspects-sanitation-policies/8964-press-release-ide-cambodia-hits-100000-latrine-sales-in-2-years-single-or-double-pit-pour-flush-toilets-easy-latrine-and-general-discussion?limit=12&start=36#10676 Let me try to answer something to your concerns.

Compexity ... yes the whole service model is complex as you attend separately urine, feces and grey water - therefore it is a service model for a utility. But as a utility service it is farily easy comparing to the compexity of operating a sewer and a treatment plant.
BUT
if you do it like iDE for rural areas (and the water table is not high than you can do an ECO let) as you can see here. Costs for this are in Perú about 60 US$. The knowledge to build that is the same as for a pit latrine. Might be an option. As much safer fecal handling and higher user comofort. Have a look (page 29 of the manual).



Feel free to ask just did not want to do seremons.

Yours
Christoph]]>
Upscaling, sanitation governance, institutional aspects, sanitation policies Fri, 24 Oct 2014 10:08:43 +0000