SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 28 May 2015 15:50:24 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: 28 May is MH Day - Let's end the hesitation around menstruation - And new Wikipedia article - by: muench
Thanks for this hint. Could you please help me out by telling me which statements, examples or facts should be taken onboard in the Wikipedia article (and then with which citation from the articles in that Waterlines issue)? That's better than providing just another general link under Further Reading.

One of the articles in that journal dealt with menstrual cups by the way, and that one we have already included in the Wikipedia page on menstrual cups:

Just to give you an example of how such a citation can be included:

The menstrual cup has been explored as a means of menstrual hygiene management in developing countries such as Kenya and South Africa, where access to affordable sanitary products may be limited.[16]

Whilst menstrual cups can also be used by females in developing countries, a lack of clean water and soap for handwashing before inserting the cup can be a problem, especially in rural areas.[16]

Reference 16 is:
Mason L, Laserson K. F., Oruko K., Nyothach E., Alexander K. T., Odhiambo F. O., Eleveld A., Isiye E., Ngere I., Omoto J., Mohammed A., Vulule J., Phillips-Howard P. A. (2015). "Adolescent schoolgirls' experiences of menstrual cups and pads in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study". Waterlines 34 (1): 15–30. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2015.003.

And could you please also tell us more about your work at Sandec on MHM (in a new thread)?


Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) Thu, 28 May 2015 15:29:11 +0000
Re: 28 May is MH Day - Let's end the hesitation around menstruation - And new Wikipedia article - by: Gendersan1
This is a great contribution to Wikipedia!

Regarding high quality inputs you could also add the Waterlines, Jan 2015 issue on Menstrual Hygiene

Warm regards,
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) Thu, 28 May 2015 15:16:13 +0000
Re: Transition from on site to off site sanitation systems - by: muench See also:

And the "effluent sewer" (or solids-free sewer) technology is also something that comes to mind, are you looking at that, too?

See e.g. here on Wikipedia:

(not yet a great article but at least I added the Sandec Compendium schematic to it and added some hyperlinks)]]>
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 14:48:48 +0000
Re: Transition from on site to off site sanitation systems - by: PaulUK
Thanks for your reply. I will take a look at the link provided for centralised/decentralised systems definition.

At this stage I am looking at appropriateness of decentralised/centralised systems. The area I am concentration on has risk of flooding so when combined with a sanitation system I am looking at the risks involved.

The current off site sanitation is very limited so when using a sanitation system I also want to make maximum use of gravity and minimum use of energy for pumping.

What I mean with transition is that I want to provide a way to improve the current on site sanitation system which in future could be easily implemented into a sewage network. For example I am considering the effectiveness of receiving bays, stations where pit emptiers can discharge into a sewer.

Hope this provides a clearer idea of what I am trying to do.

As I said before I am still gathering as much information as possible so I can in the coming days study in more detail a sanitation system using a simulation model software.


Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 14:22:53 +0000
Re: Transition from on site to off site sanitation systems - by: PaulUK Thanks for the link. much appreciated]]> Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 13:29:38 +0000 Re: Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013 - by: muench
A warm welcome to you on the forum!
For those of you wo don't know Christopher yet, here is a photo of him that I quickly found on our flickr photo database, from when he was still working for BORDA in Zambia (are you still with BORDA now, Christopher?):

Feeding and mixing of the biogas plant by SuSanA Secretariat, on Flickr

(Christopher is the white guy in this photo)

It would be nice to have your inputs directly here on the forum (rather than only by bilateral e-mail), I am sure you have lots to share and inputs to give on the various biogas discussions we've had so far.

This is the sub-category about DEWATS and biogas:

And this is the sub-category focussing on biogas production maximisation:

Maybe you want to jump into any of the previous discussions we have had so far about biogas sanitation, e.g. in Kenya and other countries.

You could start with a new thread where you tell us more about biogas sanitation in Tanzania, is it popular there? Is it used for a combination of farm waste and human excreta like Pawan explained for India above in this thread?

Focus on biogas production, issues surrounding biogas sanitation Thu, 28 May 2015 13:22:19 +0000
Re: Transition from on site to off site sanitation systems - by: muench
Could you provide more details to your research questions? I don't really understand what you meant with
I have seen different types of sanitation systems in decentralised areas but I have problems adapting or making that transition to a centralised off site system.

What is your definition of a "centralised off site system", you mean simply a sewer and treatment plant?
Perhaps this thread could be helpful about the definition of centralised and decentralised systems:

Maybe if you provide more information and context about what you are trying to do and how, we can help you better. Certainly sounds like an interesting topic.

Your final goal is to have households as part of a sewage network? What "transition" is possible there? Either the pipes are in the ground or not, I don't see much option for staging or transition there, except for connecting one neighborhood after the other...

Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 13:16:17 +0000
Re: Please help me with a global survey: how common are squatting toilets in your country? - by: adeelmalik
Here are some observations from Pakistan in general and some things I have learned during my research there.
I agree with most of the stats provided by Mr. Mughal, but I would like to add that the trend in cities is rapidly changing and most well off people that live in cities (especially larger cities)already use or are changing to the sitting type of toilet.
In rural areas it is quite different. People are not generally willing to use the sitting toilets at all. This in some ways is linked to anal cleansing, but there are also other reasons. people find it much easier to wash in the squatting position, so there is a direct correlation with anal cleanings and squatting toilets (but then again anal cleansing is practiced 100% regardless of the type of toilet).
I think a far more important reason is that people consider the sitting toilet to be unclean and unhygienic, due to the fact that parts of the body come directly in contact with the seat and other parts of the toilet, whereas in the squatting type of toilet there is no contact of any part of the body with the toilet itself (people wear slippers while using the toilet or the bathroom in general, therefore there is no contact with the body whatsoever). In rural households when there is a toilet present in the house, it is shared by the whole household, which may consist of up to 10-15 people, therefore sharing a sitting toilet in these conditions is totally undesirable. People perhaps would be more open to sitting toilets if they were the sole users of such toilets.
Even in WASH projects specially designed for Persons With Disabilities (PWD's) mostly the squatting toilets were provided on demand from the users. This is so that the rest of the household could also benefit from the toilet as well (which shows that they wouldn't use it if it was of the sitting type). When squatting toilets were provided to PWD's, a special modification (a wooden frame to be placed over the squatting toilet, which enables the person with disability to sit over the squatting toilet) was made by some users. In another WASH project for PWD's both types of toilets were given to the households with PWD's, so that it would be used by all the members of the households. Some respondents in the these areas said they would be happy to have both types of toilets for the PWD's, but if they had to chose one they would definitely choose the squatting type of toilet.

I hope this will be helpful


Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 12:22:25 +0000
Re: Open Defecation: A Boone or Bane? - by: F H Mughal
Thank you for your clarifications. That was a relief, frankly! I appreciate.


F H Mughal]]>
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Thu, 28 May 2015 10:59:13 +0000
Re: Open Defecation: A Boone or Bane? - by: adeelmalik
Don't get me wrong, I agree with you that it is not Sunnah, I am just telling you what the people have told me. They practice OD because they believe it is, and perhaps that is why they are adamant to change their ways. Of course these people are not literate and have many misconceptions when it comes to Sunnah and practices such as defecation.


Behaviour change and user psychology issues Thu, 28 May 2015 10:48:06 +0000
Re: Open Defecation: A Boone or Bane? - by: F H Mughal
Thank you for your interesting comments. Your reference to the Sunnah in that the OD was practiced back then (please correct me, if I got it wrong), is unbelievable. I'm a very strict Muslims and following the teachings of Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). I will check this point with the Imam of my local Masjid; till then, I don't think OD was practiced back them. It is simply not correct.

I also request other Muslim users of this forum to kindly comment on this point.

F H Mughal]]>
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Thu, 28 May 2015 10:20:02 +0000
Re: Update on SOIL's EkoMobil portable composting toilet pilot business model - by: arno]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, toilets at festivals and events Thu, 28 May 2015 09:59:39 +0000
Re: Open Defecation: A Boone or Bane? - by: adeelmalik First of all the communities thought it was unhygienic (or unclean and impure according to them) to have a latrine within the house. They could not imagine of having a toilet attached to a bedroom or even at the corner of their courtyard (giving the condition and type of pit latrines that were promoted in the area, I wasn't surprised). So according to most people its better to defecate as far away as possible from the house.
Many older people said their forefathers have been defecating in the open for such a long time and have been quite healthy and therefore they would not be willing to break the habit or change their ways. Some of the elder people also thought it was 'sunnah' (Sunnah is the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and interpretations of the Islamic holy book, the Quran - Wikipedia) and therefore believed it was absolutely necessary to carry on the practice of OD.
Many of the responders of the study said they were ashamed to use the latrine within the house, as everyone would notice them going to the toilet and would know what they were doing. On the other hand going into the field was not a problem as no one knew where they were or when they were defecting. So although these people defecate in the open they seem to be more comfortable doing so and enjoy a sort of privacy, which they wouldn't at home.]]>
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Thu, 28 May 2015 09:51:37 +0000
Re: Transition from on site to off site sanitation systems - by: arno]]>
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Thu, 28 May 2015 09:35:01 +0000
Re: WATSAN-AGRICULTURE: Improving on the Nexus among Water Quality and Quantity, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Agriculture - by: antonini
The hygiene awareness posters that were designed for the WASH intervention work in Bangladesh can now be viewed in the SuSanA Library.

The poster on food hygiene below was prepared by our PhD student Monirul Hasan. You can read his impressions and the experiences he made during his fieldwork below the poster! It would be great to receive your feedback and learn more about your impressions if you have designed similar posters for your interventions!


What were your experiences for designing the poster? Do you have any advice on how to design a WASH poster (DOs/DON’Ts)?

It was exciting for me to design the poster. At first I was struggled with the messages of the poster that can support my intervention. Later on, designing the poster was challenging as the real photos of the items were not encouraged. Lastly, we planned to sketch those items. But difficult thing was to find the right person who can do it. I had contacted several persons who are good in fine arts and also professionally working as cartoonist. But most of them couldn’t show up with the final outcome because of their lack of interest and commitment. So working with poster became frustrating at that time. Later on I found one of them who fulfill this commitment and finally could submit the work. I was really pleased with her works and the quality of the poster.

- Decide first what could be the messages regarding the intervention
- Make a preliminary idea or sketch to the artist or cartoonist.
- Make sure the characters in the poster can represent the context and localities of the intervention.
- Rightly place the messages in right order with proper illustration.
- Print the poster in a PVC paper so that after printing it can last for several months.

- Don’t put lot of things in the poster. Make it as simple as possible.
- At first lot of things can come up, but be precise.
- Put enough space between messages, so that it can be understandable.
- Make it self-explaining.

What were your experiences in the field in terms of acceptance and understanding of the messages? Did people show interest or was the intervention work rather a nuisance for them as they had other things to do?

The poster was welcomed by the households. But they wanted more (such as refreshment, gifts etc.) along with the poster. Most people understood the character in the poster and the messages. The organization of the training session was challenging as some of the households failed to participate in the session as they had other works to do. Although making frequent request to attend, the participation rate in the session was close to 70%. But all households were given poster and also conveyed the messages by personally going to each households as some households couldn’t able to attend. So ensuring the maximum participation was the most challenging part of the intervention.
People showed interest about the poster because they mostly didn’t know those messages from the scientific point of view. They actually learned new things from the poster with scientific proof (they get the test of E.Coli result in their hand during the training sessions).

Do you have any preliminary results or observations at this stage?

The preliminary result still is not ready. But the feeling from the field work is that most households adopted some of the hygiene messages and also started investing in this hygiene related issues. Hand washing has been increased. Water handling is improved and many households started boiling water for drinking purpose. The count of E.Coli also reduced after the intervention.

What are your lessons learned/recommendations if you had to prepare another WASH poster in the future?

If I have to prepare another WASH poster in future, I would recommend to start working on the country perspective to know about the existing practices and then design the messages based on the cultural and context specific terms which can be used to draw cartoons self-explaining. Because at the end, the poster will remain in the households.]]>
Nutrition and WASH Thu, 28 May 2015 09:32:26 +0000