SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 04 Jul 2015 08:25:02 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Ground water pollution from leach pit toilets (question from India) - by: joeturner
See this fact sheet from the WHO:]]>
Groundwater pollution and groundwater protection Fri, 03 Jul 2015 22:11:37 +0000
Re: Ground water pollution from leach pit toilets (question from India) - by: HAPitot
does anybody know the relationship of nitrate and nitrite in groundwater? While nitrate is not particularly toxic, nitrite is highly toxic, and nitrite is derived from nitrate by reduction (removal of oxigen in an oxigen depleted environment). So, nitrate can be a source of nitrite, isn't that the main danger of nitrate?


Groundwater pollution and groundwater protection Fri, 03 Jul 2015 21:53:59 +0000
Re: Public Finance at National Level - by: catarinafonseca
I got instructions to close this thread today. It has been a truly interesting and rich discussion. Thank you very much for your time and reflections. Truly appreciated.

There were new issues raised and proposed suggestions for me to address in the closing post. Let me pick a few.

I think one of the points I would like to emphasize is that I agree with a lot of the posts of the last days. Yes, there are many more relevant financing sources, from fiscal decentralization (local taxes, autonomy do not exist in many of the countries that need urgently urban sanitation services), to programmatic funding (usually small), to performance based grants (mixed results on this one being reported). And yes, most expenditure for urban sanitation takes place at the local government level and many families are paying already for sanitation services. And no, none of these sources of finance is enough at present for Sub-Sarahan or South Asia countries to reach universal access. The speed of coverage is not fast enough and is not even coping with population growth. Inequalities in sanitation have been reduced in very few countries. Urban sanitation is not a local issue to be solved by a few pennies it’s a government responsibility and requires leadership and appropriate long term finance. See the outstanding latest data on sanitation in the JMP report released three days ago. I recommend particularly the section on equity analysis for sanitation:

The one issue I think is promising is the possibility for countries who have experience in issuing bonds and have a legal and institutional set up developed enough to attract additional private and public finance (for more details on this see a blog I wrote and animation on financing facilities here But many countries have not reached yet the basic requirements and therefore additional funding leverage – of the amounts needed for urban sanitation - will not be readily available. Let’s face it, without public finance without taxation, without transfers for the countries that cannot mobilise domestic resources, the poor will be left behind. The evidence from low, middle and high income countries of the past 25 years show us that.

And indeed, linking funding with monitoring outcomes is absolutely critical – but my whole point in the brief is that we don’t even know how much finance is being spent on what at the moment for sanitation. Therefore monitoring the finance itself is the priority. The efforts of Sophie and others for TrackFin and the GLASS report are notable (she is in the other thread so you can ask her questions there .

This brings me to my last point: the final question was not really addressed.
I am aware of the difficulties in tracking financial flows at national (and district) level to the sector and of the few existing examples for sanitation. The good news from my side is that a Strategic Partnership is being developed by IRC, Simavi, Wetlands and Akvo with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It’s a lobby and advocacy partnership which includes strengthening the capacities of civil society organisations in countries and at international level to lobby among others for transparency in budget allocations and expenditure tracking. If all goes well we will start in 2016 and we will be able to mobilise and create a movement around this topic. We don’t have 15 years to reach universal coverage. We have 5 years. Why? I leave you with the Guardian article that Patrick Moriarty and I wrote on the issue and more food for thought.

Have a good evening and a great weekend.
Kind regards
Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 21:09:28 +0000
Re: Local taxation? What a crap idea! - by: Katrin
Due to unexpected changes in the availability of one of our experts who was scheduled to provide further insight into the topic on local taxation, this thread will remain open for the time being.

I will update you early next week on further proceedings.

In the meantime, please continue the conversation by sharing your experiences from your respective countries and by raising questions that our expert could address at a later point.

Finally, also make sure to check out our current discussion on Microfinance here.

Thank you,
Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 21:02:14 +0000
Re: Local taxation? What a crap idea! - by: HAPitot caterpillar tracks! A small bulldozer with caterpillar tracks would certainly impress that town engineer, but it would also put him out of work if everybody were driving something like that!

Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 19:04:50 +0000
Vacancy Notice: Senior Programme Officer, Equality and Non-Discrimination, UN-based Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council - by: DaveTrouba
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) seeks a Senior Programme Officer, Equality and Non-Discrimination. The post is now advertised on the website of UNOPS, the WSSCC host agency in the UN system. See here: The application deadline is 9 August 2015.

The purpose of this P4-level post is to deepen and consolidate WSSCC’s work on equality and non-discrimination using hygiene and sanitation as an entry point to voice, agency and social justice. This requires a combination of policy analysis, evidence gathering through applied research, and effective knowledge management and strategic advocacy with key stakeholders in national and local government together with linked capacity on the ground to implement change. It also requires networking and effective advocacy with partner UN organisations, international NGOs, think tanks and research institutes to strengthen the normative agenda. Further, it entails establishing, managing and maintaining programme partnerships with select international organizations, member State governments, and private sector companies.

Please feel free to share this notice within your respective networks.

With regards,

David Trouba]]>
Jobs, consultancies, internships Fri, 03 Jul 2015 17:15:53 +0000
Re: Local taxation? What a crap idea! - by: HAPitot ! I think, there also are small vehicles with crawler tracks that could work. The terrain is actually what I would call slightly hilly, with river Nile at a distance about 200 m below. - I think you are in India, right? I know that in India, you call hills what we call high mountains, so, let's say plains...

We have been using hand operated carts with strong bicycle wheels (India or China made), which were later replaced by motorcycle wheels, because the wheels kept breaking down, and that's what it should be now. Roadwise, the problem is that the area is swampy during the rainy season, and it's at an intersection where there should have been a culvert, but a drain where pushcarts can get through could also have worked. But the engineer in charge (cousin to both the town clerk and the CFO) prefers to get drunk instead of working on such issues...

Cheers, H-A]]>
Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 17:06:50 +0000
Re: Is it possible to connect septic tanks together? - by: PaulUK
The main objective of this project is to provide a proposal or proposals of systems that can be transitioned from onsite to offsite sanitation systems. If it can be implemented that would be a good outcome from this study. I am not considering septic tanks as the only solution as I am also considering flush urine diverting toilets and dry composting toilets where excreta can be transported for further treatment to local treatment points.

You are rigth about tackling the problem with water tightness now. I may consider having a combination of a simplified sewer system with a septic tank connection near the river banks. This would reduce the number of septic tanks being used and will help with desludging.]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 03 Jul 2015 16:39:43 +0000
Re: Ground water pollution from leach pit toilets (question from India) - by: kevintayler Groundwater pollution and groundwater protection Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:51:50 +0000 Re: Is it possible to connect septic tanks together? - by: jankn PaulUK wrote:
Would you know a link to help me with the septic tank capacity calculations. I understand that some countries have specific requirements for building septic tanks.

That is true. I have no idea about the legal requirements and required building codes in Nigeria, but you can find plenty of information about septic tank designs here on the forum, e.g. in the following thread and the linked threads within:
TOPIC: Information about septic tanks, emptying frequency, and Wikipedia article

The Sasse book in DEWATS in Developing Countries might also give some general information about sizing: Sasse (1998) DEWATS in Developing Countries

But be aware about the concerns raised about using available standard formulas for designing septic tanks without considering the local conditions, as e.g. mentioned here: TOPIC: ABR-CW quick sizing tool
I would say, it's best to find someone local with experience in ST design.

PaulUK wrote:
My research is to provide adequate sanitation systems to flooded prone areas which could be applied to communities living in similar conditions [...] for a community of around 120,000.

I am still not clear if you your project is just to "come up with a plan" or if it also includes the actual implementation/building of the proposed system. 120,000 people seems like pretty huge scale to me for supplying with septic tanks in a MSc project. Or is your work part of a bigger research/funding scheme?

PaulUK wrote:
I have read about [simplified sewers] but I was not sure if it could be applicable to flooded prone areas and the number of inspection chambers required will be quite large for a community of around 120,000.

If the ultimate plan is to connect all households to a centralized sewer system in the long-run anyway, you will sooner or later have to tackle that problem of water tightness and number of inspection chambers anyway. So, why not account for that already in the first stage - less headaches some years down the line...]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:41:07 +0000
Re: Why does microfinance for sanitation work in India? - by: rezaip Theme 2: Microfinance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:31:49 +0000 Re: Local taxation? What a crap idea! - by: Sowmya
I know you love non-sewer based solutions! Saw that on your profile status. Is Adjumani plains or hilly area? Obviously, a composting facility operator cannot be expected to incur the cost of maintaining a road! Were they using hand pushcarts? Is it possible to tinker with the wheels of the pushcart? I am not sure if I have the term right but army tanks (used in the battlefield) have a conveyor belt over multiple wheels on each side to make them all-terrain. We can either extend the wheels from under the chassis and put the conveyor belt (but this would extend the width of the vehicle, not sure if the road is wide enough) or raise the chassis and keep both set of wheels underneath. Will that conveyor belt mechanism (similar to army tanker) work and be cost-effective? Also, it should be possible to procure the spare parts locally so that it is a sustainable solution. Not sure if it would be easy to operate over steep terrain though. Hence the plains or hills question.

I think a technical solution could be the best solution in this case. You could also contact Engineers Without Borders and see if there is a tech quick-fix. I am just suggesting this because we also need to see the number of people affected by a problem. A 20-30 m stretch of road with potholes on a busy arterial road would cause much public outcry and probably easier to advocate for municipal action than a stretch in a 'low-importance' area going only to a landfill / compost storage area. Whatever works quickest so that sanitation services are not disrupted.

Thanks and warm regards,

Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:19:19 +0000
Re: Ground water pollution from leach pit toilets (question from India) - by: jankn
Yeah, this is the one I tried to summarize in my last post which looked at nitrate and E. coli among others. Since it is not the published "journal version", I think it can be shared here; although this might be a bit of a grey area that is, however, widely utilized.

Is the 2015 paper also available as softcopy on the author's website?]]>
Groundwater pollution and groundwater protection Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:18:25 +0000
Re: Ground water pollution from leach pit toilets (question from India) - by: pkjha
I have that paper from the Indian Institute of Science Bangaluru. The copy is not from the Journal, it is from the author available at the web site. It is based on the results of ground water pollution in Kolar District, Karnataka State. Same is attached.

Groundwater pollution and groundwater protection Fri, 03 Jul 2015 15:06:24 +0000
Re: Local taxation? What a crap idea! - by: HAPitot
thanks very much for your interesting comments. I wasn't at all trying to defend sewage systems, in fact I am quite a staunch opponent. The most that I would advocate are small bore systems where a first treatment is on site, thereby reducing the load on the treatment facility, reducing the size of the sewers, etc... But even those are expensive for slum dwellers, even assuming that dry toilets (UDDTs) are being used.

So, if you assume no sewage lines are used for cost reasons, access roads need some minimum standards, at least enough for push carts to get through. In Adjumani, Uganda, we actually had that problem. About 20 - 30 m of roads to the composting facility that was supposed to take municipal organic waste and residues from ecosan toilets were left to deteriorate so badly that even push carts couldn't get through. And other alternative routes were equally bad. Even going on foot was difficult. And the feasibility of the composing project was such that it was cost covering, but the local operator could not invest into upgrading that road (not to speak of the fact that the municipality had signed to maintain that access road). What would have been your solution for such a situation?

In case of Adjumani, I am sure the municipality could have invested that small money to maintain the road - as I was saying, they were earning some money via property taxes, hotel taxes, licenses, etc... But I think the key administrators (town clerk, CFO) didn't consider the project as 'their' project and were possibly waiting for new donors to come in. But I was also hearing local councilors discussing the problem.

Warm regards to you,

Theme 1: Public Finance Fri, 03 Jul 2015 14:35:25 +0000