SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 19 Jan 2017 08:58:50 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Topic 1: FSM beyond awareness and tools - by: sunetralala
One area of concern I have found regarding FSM is the lack of appreciation of the scale of the problem. This is a social, health and environmental question in India. Social because of the people who usually work at this. Health because of the implications of handling faecal sludge with live pathogens. Environmental because the sludge is disposed in drains or open areas and can contaminate both soil and water. To place FSM in the wider development agenda, these three aspects need to be considered.

The social dynamics change the moment pit emptying is mechanised. That is, if suction machines are used to empty pits, their operator could be from any caste. Once it becomes a business, the caste hierarchies disappear. However, this does not detract from the fact that well over a million people still empty pits by getting inside and immersing themselves in extremely unhygienic conditions while bucketing the sludge out.

The impact on their health has been document by many studies. What is not so well documented is the impact on the health of those living near disposal sites assuming faecal sludge is dumped on these sites without treatment. There is anecdotal evidence farmers ‘prepare’ their fields with troughs to receive the sludge but none on if they line the troughs, how long they keep the sludge before using it as manure, containment of flies etc. Then, on what do they use the sludge – grains, vegetables or other crops, and at what stage? When do they stop using the sludge and is that long enough for the pathogens to die off before the crops reach the market?

On the environmental aspects, untreated sludge and sewage are the single biggest cause of water pollution in India. Its collection and recycling and reuse are blind spots in both rural and urban sanitation planning.

Therefore, faecal sludge has to form part of the sanitation cycle. Pit toilets and septic tanks will have to be emptied at intervals. This will have to be done either by hand in densely populated areas, or mechanically where possible. A government or other technical agency could consider developing a protocol for collection, transport, treatment (decontamination) and recycling or reuse of the sludge takes human and ecological health into consideration. There are some suggested and mandated standards in India. For faecal coliform, I believe 10,000 MPN has been recommended for disposal in fields but I haven’t found the basis of this recommendation. The pollution control authorities have suggested a BOD of 200 mg/l for sewage that is to be used for agriculture and 30 mg/l (in some cases it is now 20 mg/l) for disposing treated effluents in water bodies. Can standards be mandated for each type of pathogen in faecal sludge, a method of handling and types of treatment plants that suit different contexts (land, price, running costs), as they have been done for sewage treatment plant and sewerage systems. This would help integrated faecal sludge management into the large water-sanitation-sewage planning process and not be seen as a standalone fringe concern.

Sunetra Lala]]>
Faecal Sludge Management - India's pathway to a "Clean India" (Thematic discussion - SuSanA Indian Chapter) Thu, 19 Jan 2017 08:19:06 +0000
Re: Faecal Sludge Management - The Pathway to 'Clean India'? - by: magdalenabauer
Nitya has also created a video about FSM and explained the context in India very well!

Have a look and share your thought about it. Do you agree?

Kind Regards,
on behalf of the SuSanA Indian Chapter ]]>
Faecal Sludge Management - India's pathway to a "Clean India" (Thematic discussion - SuSanA Indian Chapter) Thu, 19 Jan 2017 07:51:19 +0000
Re: Worm toilets and deworming tablets - by: jasonlopez
I imagine the worst case scenario being mass administration at a school. Any chance your thinking of doing any testing?

Best of Luck,

Jason Lopez]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets (wet composting) Thu, 19 Jan 2017 07:26:00 +0000
Re: Online Course Faecal Sludge Management: next run January - May 2017! - by: saxena.ajitkumar Please let me know is there any fee for participation in this course
Courses (including online courses) and trainings Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:59:46 +0000
Re: Getting the bigger picture - Creating sanitation systems for whole cities. City-wide planning and the role of FSM in the case of India - by: Anjavonfalkenhausen
I am posting this text on behalf of Nagasreenivas, Kanchi; Technical Expert for Sanitation Projects at GIZ India:

What are instruments for a consistent process from planning to implementation city sanitation infrastructure?
Universal goals and policy frame for working towards the “sustainable sanitation” have been established over the last decade through various national mission mode programs and state wide variants. Planning processes however still continue to follow time tested steps (CPHEEO 2013 Manual providing the backbone), though some skewness have been observed on certain steps resulting in delays during implementation. This emerges from a planning legacy where water supply and water resource planning has been one of the strong points and consequently influencing planning for wastewater management.
Wastewater management has move significantly from mere provision of toilets (accompanied by on-plot treatment systems) to a larger canvas of effectively utilizing wastewater for more productive downstream uses. This resource management and optimization objective has led to unbundling different elements across the sanitation value chain (containment, transport, treatment for health & environmental safety, treatment for recycle & reuse, disposal) for targeted solution finding. This has resulted in dealing with solid and liquid fractions of wastewater, completely & independently. A more recent approach is to look at an integrated wastewater & faecal sludge management aiming for customized local conditions & management closer to the source of wastewater generation.
The corner stones for current city-wide planning is centred on spatial planning, temporal planning and technology centric solution planning. Hence, accounting for these dynamic city systems places significant stress on implementation, hugely hinging on complex checks & balances; institutional capacities; ease of finances access. This consequently, necessitates the need for carefully crafted tools and instruments that accompany planning steps for reducing project failure risks and timely project implementation.
A typical planning to implementation process can be summed up in table below with resultant outputs serving as instruments to ensure comprehensiveness, inclusiveness and sustainability. It is envisaged that step by step process of planning will flip the current discourse of “technology” fronted planning to an outcome based planning. This would in a way help redefining the role of cities from implementing agencies to managers for services.

The challenge today can be summed up as - Integration of the past (legacy) with the future (goals) in the present (tools, technologies & opportunities for integration).]]>
Faecal Sludge Management - India's pathway to a "Clean India" (Thematic discussion - SuSanA Indian Chapter) Thu, 19 Jan 2017 06:23:30 +0000
Re: Phase 3: Supporting sustainable sanitation through knowledge management and collaborative action within SuSanA - by: F H Mughal
I appreciate your point. The problem with webinars, however, is that, since we have slow and unreliable internet here, it is difficult to stay connected.

I have requested Elisabeth to tap some other funding sources for consultative workshops.

F H Mughal]]>
Announcements regarding SuSanA Thu, 19 Jan 2017 05:11:26 +0000
Re: Getting the bigger picture - Creating sanitation systems for whole cities. City-wide planning and the role of FSM in the case of India - by: rjoseph
While it is encouraging to see the interest in FSM they are seen as an alternate to sewerage systems. Factors such as population density, growth pattern, water supply, ground water and terrain should govern the choice of appropriate treatment systems (Centralized, decentralized and on-site systems).

While IS 2470 provides guidance on the design and installation of septic tanks, my observations in a few states is very disappointing. Tanks are built as a single, twin or multiple tanks with no baffle wall, improper inlet and outlet arrangements, unlined sides and bottom, outlet discharging to the drain and 9 times out 10 no soak aways. Grey wastewater is also discharged to the drains. In such situations you would have to either regulate discharge from septic tanks or take steps to treat black and grey wastewater.

These challenges are not insurmountable, but it's something that needs to be addressed if we are to create clean, healthy and liveable cities.]]>
Faecal Sludge Management - India's pathway to a "Clean India" (Thematic discussion - SuSanA Indian Chapter) Thu, 19 Jan 2017 05:06:42 +0000
Re: Phase 3: Supporting sustainable sanitation through knowledge management and collaborative action within SuSanA - by: F H Mughal
Thanks for a good round-up. Is it possible for you to tap some other funding sources (ADB, USAID, WB, GTZ, DFID, CIDA, ESCAP) for consultative workshops, since, as you say, the current grant is internal and limited?

F H Mughal]]>
Announcements regarding SuSanA Thu, 19 Jan 2017 05:05:45 +0000
Re: SuSanA webinar: 'How to make your own SFD graphic using the SFD online tools’ Wednesday, January 18th 2017 at 16:00 CET - by: arno

Webinars and online meetings Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:50:25 +0000
Re: Phase 3: Supporting sustainable sanitation through knowledge management and collaborative action within SuSanA - by: arno Maybe not a full-fledged workshop as you have described. But we can run a few webinars that could fulfill the purpose you describe which I think would be highly appreciated. So why not contact Sarah Dicken at SEI who is responsible for planning these webinars.

Announcements regarding SuSanA Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:10:18 +0000
Re: Phase 3: Supporting sustainable sanitation through knowledge management and collaborative action within SuSanA - by: muench

Actually this grant is very "internet and virtual world" focused. Most of the work will be achieved by improving the SuSanA platform and tools, such as Forum, Website, Wikipedia, working group leads support, knowledge management, project database, support of practitioners at country level using Oxfam and Wateraid staff as a starting point, webinars etc. There is also money to do studies on SuSanA itself, i.e. user experience study, communications and marketing study, organizational study. All this will be coordinated via e-mail.

With regards to workshops this is pretty much beyond the scope of this grant, sorry (apart form some things that WaterAid and Oxfam might organise in certain focus countries; this list of focus countries is currently being finalised - I will share it once I have it but I think Pakistan is not on it).

But keep an eye on all the events announced here:

Some conferences offer sponsorships for people from low-income countries.

Any chance you could get yourself to Chennai in India in February?
This should be an excellent conference, the FSM4 conference & SuSanA meeting in India:

(working on this grant with Arno and a group of people from the grant consortium)]]>
Announcements regarding SuSanA Wed, 18 Jan 2017 22:26:48 +0000
Re: Worm toilets and deworming tablets - by: muench
  1. The anthelminthic drugs do not really "kill" the intestinal worms but they cause the worms to "let go of their hosts"; they can no longer attach themselves properly and leave the body of the host (e.g. child) with the feces. They (the helminths) would not actually be dead but not able to stay in the host anymore. This led me to conclude that this medicine cannot be all that harmful in the environment (?).
  2. She also said it is no different to anything else we ingest, i.e. also antibiotics, anti-depressant, hormones and alike are passed out in the feces and could theoretically have an impact on the earthworms - but they are unlikely to be so "sensitive" or are they?
  3. She was unaware of any issues with resistance of anthelmintic drugs in the patients; she said there are a range of different drugs for different types of worms; sometimes a mixture of drugs are used, or not a targeted drug for a specific worm type; this could lead to lower levels of efficiency.
My gut feeling is that you don't have to worry about the tiger worms in the worm toilet. Also remember the children are only treated every six months or even only yearly. Tell them to use a different toilet for a day after they have taken the deworming pill?? This is impractical, I guess - but could theoretically be a solution if the worms in the worm toilet were very sensitive (but I doubt it).

I think the analogies from animal deworming (e.g. some of the articles mentioned above) may not hold.

But let's see if we can dig out more information or encourage more real worm experts to talk to us on this interesting topic?

Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets (wet composting) Wed, 18 Jan 2017 22:17:22 +0000
Re: Internship with Cairn Foundation - Cairn Centre of Excellence (CCOE) at Jodhpur, India - by: isabelleohlson
Is this internship still on offer?


Jobs, consultancies, internships Wed, 18 Jan 2017 15:00:49 +0000
Re: Discussion paper regarding a framework model for sanitation markets - Inputs and comments wanted!! - by: cecile
Sorry for not being so clear. What I meant is that the motivating factor for individuals (and by extension for populations) to invest in sanitation is often not related to their health or to the environment. Immediate impacts on people's lives underpin the choice to invest in sanitation rather than impacts visible in the long term such as health or environment. That is what I meant by "well being", it did not mean "livelihoods".
Therefore if you say "the overall goal should be for the population of a country to improve their health and economic status through sanitation", this is the overall goal from the point of view or a researcher (or an NGO or the government)but not from the point of view of the population.

I did not understand what you mean by "agency" of the target group. Can you give a synonym for agency?
Market development in action Wed, 18 Jan 2017 11:05:11 +0000
Re: Urinoirs secs dans les rues de Paris, Lyon et Nantes - by: cecile Il s'agit d'urinoirs publics. En l'absence d'installations sanitaires publiques, les passants (les hommes) urinent dans la rue contre les murs, en particulier dans certains quartiers comme les gares. C'est pourquoi l'article mentionne qu'"il y a des quartiers où cela relève de l'infection", c'est à dire où ces comportements entrainent un état d'insalubrité. Les riverains devraient donc approuver cette initiative !

Ce type de solution sanitaire s'adresse aux collectivités territoriales, c'est à dire essentiellement aux mairies et non aux particuliers.

En ce qui concerne le coût, ces solutions sont en général développées par des petites entreprises françaises, et sans connaître l'entreprise Uritrottoir personnellement, il est souvent très difficile pour celles-ci de pouvoir vivre de leur activité, même avec un prix de vente de 3000 euros.

Les entreprises doivent couvrir leur coût de recherche et dévelopement, de prospection et marketing du produit avec des coûts de production élevés en raison de la petite échelle de production et du fait que toute installation dans un espace public doit résiter au vandalisme. Les matériaux doivent donc être robustes et sont plus couteux.

Bien cordialement,
Urinals Wed, 18 Jan 2017 10:47:57 +0000