SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 31 Jul 2015 07:20:52 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Are so-called "freezing toilets" common in Finland? Does anyone know anything about them? - by: muench
Indeed, it would be interesting to know up to which kind of climate zone such a freezing toilet would be possibly economical. I can easily imagine the Scandinavian (cold) countries, and also my country (Germany), but perhaps Italy is already too hot for it? Mind you, people also have deep freezers in Italy so perhaps there is no real correlation with ambient temperature?
In any case, one would need to have a stable power supply.
I don't think anyone would promote them for really hot countries or regions with frequent power cuts...

Just the other day I received this e-mail from a Finish owner of a freezing toilet:



I saw your question from May this year at the Susana-forum. Did not want to register, so my answer is here:

Freezing toilets are great and useful, and my family has one (second one) at our cottage near Helsinki. To lawfully dispose of the waste you really have to understand composting.

It is very handy and odourless and nice. It is easy for me to empty. I always cover it in the compost with garden material.

I bought the first one in the 1990's, from Sweden, and also the second one. The reason why I found your question is I googled to find where I could find new buckets to it but seems the Swedish manufacturer (Rumla-something) is no more.

These toilets are coming more and more popular, now made in Finland, and the prices have come down.

Greetings from Finland



Would be nice to hear from more people who own such a toilet?


P.S. The e-mail by M. shows once again that people use Google to find information and that they sometimes land on our forum as a result of it which is nice. ]]>
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Fri, 31 Jul 2015 07:14:53 +0000
Re: Are so-called "freezing toilets" common in Finland? Does anyone know anything about them? - by: avann ]]> Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Fri, 31 Jul 2015 04:04:35 +0000 Re: Tippy Tap in schools way to go!? (and other group handwashing facilities at schools) - by: WASHanna Group Handwashing Facilities in School Technical Design Manual.

You may also find the key resources page of the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing's website useful.]]>
Handwashing activities at schools Thu, 30 Jul 2015 20:09:26 +0000
Use of viral agents to improve the economics of human waste disposal (Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University, Kerala, India) - by: spal05
Title of grant: Use of viral agents, microbial fuel cell and effective recycling strategies to improve the economics of human waste disposal

Note: This is the original title proposed but reviewers advised not to include microbial fuel cell (MFC) in that project. Even though we are working on MFC for last several years, this is not included in this project.

• Name of lead organization: Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University
• Primary contact at lead organization: Dr. Bipin G. Nair
• Grantee location: Amritapuri, Kollam, Kerala, India
• Developing country where the research is being tested: India
• Start and end date: Dec 3, 2014 – Dec 2, 2016
• Grant type: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge India
• Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Yes

Short description of the project:

This is proof-of-concept grant, where we have proposed to develop appropriate lytic agents (which “lyse” or kill cells) against major enteric pathogens and sulfur reducing bacteria (that cause malodour in the sewage). After production in a cost effective way, the lytic agents need to be dispensed (broadcasted) in sewage/septic tank. Appropriate lytics broadcasting system (LBS) is being developed to filter and broadcast different lytic agents such as bacteriophages, enzymes, bacteriocins* and small molecules from cheap renewable natural sources such as plant biomass waste (kitchen/agro-waste). Among the lytic agents, bacteriophages (viruses infecting the bacteria) are highly specific to the target pathogens and hence very safe. They are the most important and abundant biological entities on earth. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and France. They are currently being tried as possible therapeutic agents against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. Phages against many food borne pathogens have been approved by FDA, US.

* Note: Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s)

• Goal(s): Reduction of pathogen load and odour in wastewater
• Objectives: Development of bacteriophages and other biological agents and their appropriate broadcasting system in wastewater
• Implementation partners: Mata Amritanandamayi Math (MA Math), Amritapuri, Kerala, India (Parent organization of Amrita University)

Note: Amrita University is managed by a non-profit philanthropic spiritual organization, MA Math led by Mata Amritanandamayi popularly known as Amma (mother).

Links, further readings – results to date: Project website:

Appropriate lytics broadcasting system (LBS) is being developed to filter and broadcast different lytic agents such as bacteriophages, enzymes, bacteriocins and small molecules from cheap renewable natural sources such as plants, fungi and bacteria. Bacteriophages have been developed against five different enteric bacteria.

Overall, we have isolated about 25 phages against different strains of E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio, procured either from hospitals or wastewater. Few phages have been also developed against sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) such as Salmonella andProteus vulgaris. They were able to reduce production of hydrogen sulfide (one of major causes of the rotten egg smell). We have also started exploring the possibility of hosting the phage population in the human intestine surface layer (epithelia) so that they can work for the human host against the pathogens infecting the gastro-intestinal tract. Furthermore, we have isolated several E. coli bacteriophages that bind fibronectin and gelatin (denatured collagen) which are important matrix proteins of epithelial cells. We are currently testing their efficacy on protecting human epithelial cells (HT29) from E. coli infection.

This work has two purposes: test the safety of phages against human/animal exposure (even it is known as safe) and second is therapeutic purpose. This is not to be mixed with sanitation issue.

Current state of affairs:
After six months of the formal start of the project, we have been improving the strength and stability of the phages and other lytic agents so that they can be deployed in wastewater treatment. A prototype of the Lytics Broadcasting System (LBS) is being developed.

Biggest successes so far:
Development of bacteriophages against five enteric pathogens and their appropriate lytics broadcasting system

Main challenges:
The lytic agents are being made from mainly biological sources and they are susceptible to inhibition by heavy metals, detergents and other pollutants. Wastewater is very heterogeneous in composition with respect to biological pathogens, heavy metals, detergents, toiletries and other pollutants. Hence treatment procedures may be needed to be customized to tackle the inhibitors of the lytic agents. Thus the development and production cost may increase. In situ production of the lytic agents by the endogenous organisms which are not pathogenic and sustains pollutants in wastewater is one of the ideal ways. Our study should increase the deeper understanding of the different complex ecological interaction in wastewater and should be able to tackle these issues effectively.


Sanjay Pal, PhD
Amrita School of Biotechnology
Amrita University, Kollam, Kerala.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 30 Jul 2015 18:02:09 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: pippa
I'm very happy to share the videos of this webinar held on the 22nd July. These are split into sections:

1. Introduction

2. Chat show - where the 4 speakers indicated above shared their insights

3. Feedback from breakout rooms

4. Closing Panel's comments

Please feel free to continue to share your comments and reflections on this thread!
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:52:48 +0000
Re: 38th WEDC INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE : Call for papers and other contributions (27–31 July 2015, Loughborough, UK) - by: muench
The title was: Can we fix the internet? Improving Wikipedia's sanitation content with the ‘WikiProject Sanitation’

Here is the short version:

Here is the longer version of my presentation with additional slides in the Appendix:

Note these slides are under the licence CC-BY SA so you can reuse them for whatever purpose you like (including commercial purposes), just mention the source.

I think that my presentation was well received and that I managed to trigger some more people about editing Wikipedia in future or at least looking at Wikipedia with different eyes next time you look up a WASH or a non-WASH topic there!


P.S. You can find out more about what was discussed at this conference by looking for #wedc38 on twitter. The papers will be uploaded to the WEDC Knowledge Database (makes me think, should we also upload them to the SuSanA library or is that a doubling of efforts?). The presentations in the main lecture theatres have also been filmed with "Lecture Capture" (simple camera system like a fly on the wall), so they should become available soon. Apparently the opening and closing ceremonies were even live streamed over the internet, although I didn't see the links for it.]]>
Conferences, seminars and workshops Thu, 30 Jul 2015 15:46:50 +0000
Re: Kicking off the discussion on microfinance for sanitation - by: tahunganh
Creating a good business model is also a solution for microfinacing the sanitation especially in Faecal Sludge management.

Our research team are suggesting the innovative business model OF FAECAL SLUDGE COLLECT & TRANSPORT SERVICE so we would like to have your opinion to validate this model by join our international survey in this link:

(1) Your opinion is very valuable to propose the innovative theoretical business model of this service.

(2) By joining this survey, we hope you may gain some great ideas about business model innovation of this very promising business.

(3) In case, you know any person may answer for this survey topic, kindly help to circulate/forward this email with the survey link to your community.

All your contribution, comments, questions are very welcomed via my email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
Theme 2: Microfinance Thu, 30 Jul 2015 14:43:49 +0000
Reminder: WG1 (capacity development on Thursday 27 August 13:30-15:30h (prior to the plenary working group exchange) - by: dorothee.spuhler
This is a reminder for you to subscribe for the meeting and to provide your inputs to the working group meeting agenda.

In order to know how many participants we can expect please register here and don't forget to tick the box for WG1 meeting (if you are not sure yet, please register anyway).
If you would like to share some of your experiences as part of the agenda, please write an email to me.

The general topic of the meeting is about approaches addressing the lack of trained sanitation professionals to reach the post-2015 agenda.
The idea is to collect our experiences on innovative and effective tools for capacity development at all levels and its relevance to reach the sustainable development goals. Online discussion forums and e-learning are definitively going to be key issues. But also regional knowledge management and sharing nodes to bring those tools more efficiently to where they are needed most urgently are of relevance.
The meeting might feed into a common factsheet on capacity development for sustainable sanitation that we can disseminate through SuSanA and use for influencing policy and raising funds for up-scaling our activities in this field.

Please feed into the discussion even though you will not be physically present in Stockholm! The outcomes of the meeting will be presented and further discussed here and we will also use the forum to work on a future factsheet on this.

Cheers, Dorothee]]>
WG 1 (Capacity development) Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:40:54 +0000
Re: Fit For School Approach (F4S) - 10 primary schools in Moshi, Tanzania - by: hajo
1 the training for ministries, LGAs (local government) and NGOs has been done in the first half of June;

2 ChildReach (-> ) our NGO in Moshi has held training with school management of 10 schools and with respective ward officers about the F4S approach;

3 the hand-washing facilities have been tendered and contract will be awarded shortly (see also );

4 I have followed the discussion on the Forum where the usefulness of mass deworming among school children is being questioned (see also );

5 ... and it has been questioned whether F4S should be a (core) activity of a GIZ water programme. Thus financing of our activity beyond Feb2016 is not yet sure.

Ciao Hajo]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:28:04 +0000
Re: Submit your favorite reading about capacity development (WG1 topic) and win one of many prizes! - by: dorothee.spuhler
Thanks for your submissions. For the ones that have not yet voted: please submit your choice here: - or send me an email!
Don't hesitate to suggest additional favorite readings and documents on capacity development for sustainable sanitation either here or via email.

WG 1 (Capacity development) Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:23:58 +0000
Development Worker as advisor for WASH at schools - by: secretariat
Your tasks
  • You will provide support to DepEd ARMM in the operationalization of the new health and nutrition policy
  • You will contribute to capacitate school health personnel and DepEd ARMM management to institutionalize and scale-up a school-based management (SBM) approach to WASH in Schools (WinS)
  • You will support DepEd ARMM to define criteria for minimum standards for WinS based on the Three Star Approach
  • You will contribute to the development of an accreditation system based on these minimum standards
  • You will provide support to develop a transparent monitoring system to accredit schools on an annual basis which meet minimum standards

Application details can be found here.

Uta Horn
Phone: +49 228 4460-1188

Kind regards,
on behalf of the SuSanA secretariat]]>
Jobs, consultancies, internships Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:13:24 +0000
Re: Tippy Tap in schools way to go!? (and other group handwashing facilities at schools) - by: hajo
following my posting of beginning June we have finalised our design based on the ideas which we received from the Asia F4S programme. We have maintained the general idea and layout of the Core Module but have changed the bucket stand considerably and have omitted the union sockets for connections.

We have asked suppliers to produce a sample of the bucket stand and have tendered the production and supply of 160 Nos. of the hand-washing facility. The lowest bid gives us a unit price of 79 EUR ex works, excluding VAT. We are about to place the order and will keep you posted once the first HWF have been installed.

ciao Hajo]]>
Handwashing activities at schools Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:08:41 +0000
Program Coordinator for CS WASH Fund - Australia - by: kimmee22, and is full-time based in Brisbane, Australia.

The links to the position description and selection criteria are below. Applications close 17th August 2015.

See the post here:]]>
Jobs, consultancies, internships Thu, 30 Jul 2015 04:20:01 +0000
Decentralized greywater to drinking quality water for total recycle - by: clint
I just found this forum while searching in Costa Rican water and wastewater issues and would like to add some my own personal history and philosophies.

I believe that a good business foundation needs a logical and proven sustainable technology in order to even begin to create a successful model.

For over 45 years I have developed a decentralized blackwater (composting) large treatment tank and a grey water aerobic treatment system and a grey water filtration, ozone disinfection and reverse osmosis recycling system capable of recovering 95% of the grey water into potable drinking quality water without the yuck factor. Utilizing ultra-ultra low flushing toilets and recycling the grey water has reduced the need for water by 97% and wastewater pollution to the environment by 100%.

Entire systems are installed in a buried or above ground 8' x 8' x 20' container next to the residence or business and monitored via the internet.

Rates of usage are calculated upon total amount of water utilized, treated and recycled. Financing with home improvement loans based upon a maintenance and monitoring contract.

With the monitoring via the internet all security and any other business services can be provided and will expand the market base based upon WATER.

Please Google, AlasCan and Equaris Corporation and WCCO News Project Energy Equaris Corporation, Afton, MN.

Thank you,

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 30 Jul 2015 01:47:17 +0000
Re: How much evidence do we have that mass deworming of children really has much of an impact? - by: joeturner
The first, by James Shelton, is an editorial in Global Health: Science and Practice.

Shelton concludes:

To achieve ambitious global health goals, such as ending preventable child and maternal mortality, we need evidence on the “how and when” of implementation at scale, in the face of vast real-world complexity and situational variability. Evidence arising within a specific program can help with better implementation in that setting. But beyond locally relevant learning, a major objective is identifying systematic patterns for wider application. Triangulating and otherwise bringing together evidence arising from different methodologies with sufficient detail to illuminate causal relationships is essential to applying such knowledge to real-world public health problems across diverse situations. When assessing public health evidence, WHO and others should move beyond predominant reliance on RCT evidence.

Evidence-based public health: not only whether it works, but how it can be made to work practicably at scale by Shelton in Global Health Science and Practice

The next is a response by Laurel Hatt and others:

RCTs do have well-documented limitations, some of which are outlined in Shelton's editorial, and conducting a randomized experiment may not always be possible even when it might be ideal. But one commonly made assertion is important to counter here—that RCTs have particularly burdensome cost requirements. Based on our experience, RCTs can be conducted for the same budget (or less) than pre-post or quasi-experimental design studies. In many instances, a baseline survey is not needed when interventions are allocated by random assignment

A False Dichotomy: RCTs and Their Contributions to Evidence-Based Public Health by Hatt et al in Global Health Science and Practice

Finally a response by James Shelton:
While I really do appreciate randomized studies, perhaps my biggest concern is the “hierarchy” whereby some colleagues place controlled trials at the top of a pyramid as manifestly the best evidence. For understanding public health programming, I see that as quite misguided. Randomized studies help us to understand some things, but they are only one piece of the picture in “triangulating” evidence for programming. And evidence from real-world programming is especially key.

Response to “A False Dichotomy: RCTs and Their Contributions to Evidence-Based Public Health” by Shelton in Global Health Science and Practice]]>
Intestinal worm infections (helminthiasis) and helminth ova measurements Wed, 29 Jul 2015 17:32:46 +0000